SpreadCE Help
(C) 2001 Bye Design Ltd
BasicsA spreadsheet file is made up of pages, called "sheets". There are different types of sheets: Worksheets  which are used for storing data and doing calculations, Chart sheets  which are used for displaying graphs and charts, and Macro sheets  which are used for storing the instructions that make up custom (userdefined) functions and commands.
A worksheet consists of many boxes, called "cells", arranged in a grid. There are 1048576 rows and 16384 columns of these. The rows are number from 1 to 1048576, and the columns are named after the letters of the alphabet, going from A to Z, then AA, AB ... AZ, BA, BB ... etc all the way up to XFD, which is the 16384^{th} column.
An individual row is referred to by its row number, an individual column is referred to by its column name, and an individual cell is referred to by the column name and row number that it is in. For example the cell in the top left corner of a worksheet is referred to as cell A1, because it is in column A and row 1.
The sheets are referred to by their sheet names. When new sheets are added they are given default names such as Sheet1, Sheet2 etc. You can change these names by using the Format Sheet Rename menu option. The sheet names are displayed on tabs at the bottom of the screen. To select a particular sheet to be displayed, either tap on the sheet name tab, or use the arrow buttons in the bottom left corner.
The currently active, or 'cursor' cell is displayed with a thick black border around it. If there is a formula in this cell then it will be displayed in the formula bar at the top of the screen, and if you want to enter a formula then this is the cell where the formula will be stored. To move the cursor to a different cell you can use the up/down/left/right arrow keys on your keyboard, or use your mouse or pointer to click on a different cell.
Most operations on the spreadsheet affect the currently selected cells, called the selection. Normally there is only one cell selected, that is the cursor cell. For many operations you will want to select more than one cell. You can do this by moving the cursor to one corner of the area to be selected (see above) and then either hold down the shift key and use the arrow keys to extend the selection as far as necessary, or drag your mouse or pointer across the screen to the far corner of the area to be selected. The selected cells will be displayed with their colours reversed.
New  Opens a new blank workbook. 
Open  Displays the File Open dialog box for you to choose a spreadsheet file to open. 
Recent  Displays a list of the 9 most recently used (i.e. opened or saved) files as a shortcut for opening them. 
Close  Closes the current workbook, after prompting you to save any changes. 
Save  Saves the current workbook back into the file it was opened from. If this spreadsheet was created with the File New menu option rather than opened with the File Open menu option, then you will be asked for a file name to save it under. 
Save as  Displays the File Save dialog box for you to choose a name and location for saving the current workbook. 
Window  Displays a list of the currently open workbooks and allows you to select a different one as the active workbook. 
Exit  This shuts down the program, after prompting you to save any changed workbooks. 
Undo  This option undoes the last change you made to the spreadsheet, should you make a mistake or just change your mind. There are currently 16 levels of Undo, that is, the program remembers the last 16 things that you did and can step back through them using this menu option.  
Cut  This option removes the contents of the currently selected cells and places them on the clipboard, so that you can paste them somewhere else. Only one selection can be stored on the clipboard at a time, so this will replace whatever was previously on the clipboard.  
Copy  This option copies the contents of the currently selected cells and places them on the clipboard, so that you can paste them somewhere else. Only one selection can be stored on the clipboard at a time, so this will replace whatever was previously on the clipboard.  
Paste  This option takes the contents of the clipboard and puts it into the currently selected cells.  
Paste Special  When cells are cut or copied to the clipboard, the program stores not only what is displayed in the cell, but also the formula that is in the cell and the formatting. The Paste menu option will paste all of this information into the target cells, but this menu option allows you to paste just some of that information. A dialog box is displayed for you to choose what is pasted.  
Fill 
 
Clear 
 
Delete  If entire rows or columns have been selected then this menu option will delete the selected rows or columns. Otherwise (that is, one or more cells have been selected) a dialog box will be displayed containing 4 options: (1) Shift cells left  delete the selected cells and move the cells on the right of them to the left to take their places, (2) Shift cells up  delete the selected cells and move the cells below them up to take their places, (3) Entire row  delete the entire rows that the selection spans, the rows below will be moved up, (4) Entire column  delete the entire columns that the selection spans, the columns to the right will be moved left.  
Delete Sheet  Delete the currently displayed worksheet, chart or macro sheet. If there is only one worksheet in your spreadsheet file, you will not be allowed to delete it.  
Move or Copy Sheet  Allows you to move or copy the current sheet to a different position in the file.  
Find  Allows you to look for cells that contain specified things. This menu option displays a dialog box asking you 4 things: (1) the text that you want to search for, (2) whether to look for it in the formulas (what was typed into the cells) or in the values (what is displayed in the cells), (3) whether the search is to be casesensitive (whether you want upper and lower case letters to be treated as different), and (4) whether to find cells that are equal to the text that you typed or just contain the text that you typed. Entering these and pressing Find next will move the cursor to the first cell after the current cursor position that matches your request. The dialog box stays on the screen until it is cancelled, so repeated pressing of the Find next button will take you to each of the cells that match your request.  
Replace  Allows you to search for text in cell formulas and optionally replace one or all occurrences.  
Go To  Allows you to move directly to another part of the worksheet. This menu option displays a dialog box that asks you for a cell reference. Entering the reference and pressing OK will move the cursor to the specified cell. 
Cells  If entire rows or columns have been selected then this menu option will insert the selected rows or columns. Otherwise (that is, one or more cells have been selected) a dialog box will be displayed containing 4 options: (1) Shift cells right  the cells to the right of the selection will be moved to the right to make room for the new cells, (2) Shift cells down  the cells below the selection will be moved down to make room for the new cells, (3) Entire row  the entire rows that the selection spans will be inserted, (4) Entire column  the entire columns that the selection spans will be inserted.  
Rows  Inserts one or more new rows where the selection is.  
Columns  Inserts one or more new columns where the selection is.  
Worksheet  Inserts a blank worksheet at the end of the spreadsheet file.  
Chart 
 
Macro sheet  Inserts a blank macro sheet at the end of the spreadsheet file. Macro sheets are used for storing custom (userdefined) functions and commands.  
Function  Displays a dialog box from which you can select a function to be inserted into the current cell formula.  
Name 
 
Comment  This option allows you to add a comment to the currently selected cell. If there is already a comment attached to the cell, then this option will be changed to Edit comment, and the existing comment will be displayed for you to change. You can press the Escape key to leave without entering or changing the comment, or you can click outside the comment box to save the changes. When a cell contains a comment, there will be a comment indicator in the topright corner of the cell. To display a comment you can either use this menu option, or you can click and hold the pointer on the cell for 1/2 a second, the comment will be displayed until you move or release the pointer. To remove a comment from a cell, use the Edit Clear Comments menu option.  
Control 
 
Drawing 
 
Hyperlink  Displays a dialog box that allows you to add, change or remove a link from the current selection to a file and/or location. To specify a location in the current file leave the file name blank. To remove a link, delete the file name and the location name. 
Cells  Displays a dialog box that allows you to change the way that the contents of the selected cells are displayed. You can change the way that numbers, amounts of money, dates, times and text are formatted. You can change the colour of the text, the pattern and colour of the cell background, and the type and colour of the cell borders.  
Row 
 
Column 
 
Sheet 
 
File 
 
Program 
 
Conditional  Allows you to select alternative formatting for cells depending on conditions.  
Freeze Panes  On a worksheet, this allows you to fix the currently displayed row and/or column headings so that they will not move when the sheet is scrolled. When you use this option, the rows above the cursor cell and the columns to the left of it will be fixed. For example, if you want the top row to stay the same when you page down through the sheet, move the cursor to cell A2 and then use this menu option, the row above cell A2, which is row 1, will stay displayed when you page through the sheet, and as there are no columns to the left of cell A2, no columns will be fixed. When this option has been used, the menu option changes to 'Unfreeze Panes', which allows you to free the rows and columns again.  
Data 
 
Chart  On a chart sheet, this displays a dialog box that allows you to change the type of the chart, the data that is used, and the way in which the chart is formatted.  
Control  Displays a dialog box that allows you to set the attributes of the currently selected Control object.  
Drawing  Displays a dialog box that allows you to set the attributes of the currently selected Drawing object. 
To enter text or number information into the spreadsheet, just move the cursor to the required cell, type the text or number in the formula bar and press the enter key. In most spreadsheets you will want to do some calculations with this text and number information. This is done using formulas. Formulas are entered into cells using an equal sign followed by the expression to be evaluated. The result of the calculation will be displayed in the cell that contains the formula. Examples:
=2+2  Will display the value 4. 
="Hello " & "world!"  Will display Hello world!. 
=SUM(A1:A10)  Will add up the values in cells A1 to A10 and display the total. 
Note that although you will usually see function names (like SUM above) in upper case, you can enter them in upper or lower case. The same applies to cell names, you could enter A1 or a1 to refer to the top left cell.
Many formulas, like SUM, allow you to specify not just one cell but a whole block of cells as a parameter. This is done by specifying the name of the cell at one corner of the block, followed by a colon, followed by the name of the cell at the opposite corner. For example the 2x2 square of cells in the top left corner of a worksheet could be specified by A1:B2 (or A2:B1, or B1:A2 etc, it doesn't matter which corner is specified first).
To refer to cells on other sheets, prefix the cell or range reference with the sheet name followed by an exclamation mark, for example Sheet1!A1 or Sheet1!A1:B2. If the sheet name contains spaces, you will need to put it in single quotes, like this: 'Other sheet'!A1.
Some formulas, such as =MMULT(A1:B2,C1:D2) (which multiplies two matrices together), can return more than one value. These are called Array formulas. To use these, you will first need to select a block of cells of the correct size and shape for the expected results, then type your formula into the formula bar, and enter it not by pressing the Enter key, but by holding down the Shift and Control keys and then pressing the Enter key. This tells the program that this is an Array formula.
[ ] indicates optional parameters
DAVERAGE(database_range, field, criteria_range)[ ] indicates optional parameters
DATE(year, month, day)[ ] indicates optional parameters
BESSELI(x, n)[ ] indicates optional parameters
ACCRINT(issue_date, first_interest_date, settlement_date, rate, par, frequency, [basis])[ ] indicates optional parameters
CELL(info_type, [reference])[ ] indicates optional parameters
AND(logical1, [logical2, ...])[ ] indicates optional parameters
ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text])[ ] indicates optional parameters
ABS(number)[ ] indicates optional parameters
AVEDEV(number1, [number2, ...])[ ] indicates optional parameters
ASC(text)[ ] indicates optional parameters
ARGUMENT([name_text], [type], [reference])[ ] indicates optional parameters
ABSREF(ref_text, reference)[ ] indicates optional parameters
CALL(module_text, procedure, type_text, [argument1, ...])[ ] indicates optional parameters
ENCODEURL(text)DAVERAGE(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the average of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the average. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DCOUNT(database_range, [field], criteria_range)
Returns the count of the number of rows in the database that meet the selection criteria and where the specified field contains a number.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values that you want to count. If this parameter is omitted then the function will return the number of database rows that meet the selection criteria. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DCOUNTA(database_range, [field], criteria_range)
Returns the count of the number of rows in the database that meet the selection criteria and where the specified field is not blank.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values that you want to count. If this parameter is omitted then the function will return the number of database rows that meet the selection criteria. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DGET(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the value of a specified field from the row in the database range that meets the selection criteria. There should be one and only one row that meets the selection criteria. If no rows meet the criteria then the error #VALUE! is returned. If more than one row meets the criteria then the error #NUM! is returned.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the value that you want to retrieve. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DMAX(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the maximum of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the maximum. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DMIN(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the minimum of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the minimum. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DPRODUCT(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the product of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values that you want to multiply together. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DSTDEV(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the standard deviation (based on a population sample) of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the standard deviation. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DSTDEVP(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the standard deviation (based on the entire population) of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the standard deviation. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DSUM(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the sum of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the sum. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DVAR(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the variance (based on a population sample) of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the variance. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
DVARP(database_range, field, criteria_range)
Returns the variance (based on the entire population) of the values of a specified field in a database range.
database_range  A reference to the cells that contain the database (including the column headings). It is usually easiest to use a defined name for this. 
field  The column number or column heading name of the values of which you want to find the variance. 
criteria_range  A reference to cells that contain the criteria that you want to use when selecting records from the database to process. You can specify the same range as used for the database_range parameter if you want to select all the rows. 
Returns the date value corresponding to a specified year, month and day. Note that only dates from 1900 onwards can be used.
year  The year number. If you enter a number less than 1900 then 1900 will be added to the value. 
month  The month number. Preferably between 1 and 12. 
day  The day number. Preferably between 1 and 31. 
Returns the difference between two dates in the units that you specify.
date1  The 'from' date.  
date2  The 'to' date. This should be greater than or equal to the 'from' date.  
units  The units in which you want the difference expressed. The possible values are:  

Returns the date value that corresponds to a date in text form. Note that only dates from 1900 onwards can be used. You should not need to use this function, as dates are automatically converted from text to date values when they are used in formulas.
date_text  The date that you want to convert. It can contain date separators and/or a month name. If only the day and month is supplied then the year will default to the current year. 
Returns the day number (between 1 and 31) from the specified date value.
serial_number  The date value from which you want to extract the day number. 
Returns the number of days between two dates.
end_date  The 'to' date. 
start_date  The 'from' date. 
DAYS360(start_date, end_date, [method])
Returns the number of days between two dates using a 360day year (30 day months).
start_date  The 'from' date.  
end_date  The 'to' date.  
method  Indicates how to deal with end dates that are the 31^{st} of the month (the start date will always be moved from the 31^{st} to the 30^{th}). The options are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Returns the date that is the start date plus or minus a number of months.
start_date  The 'from' date. 
months  The number of months to be added or subtracted. 
Returns the date that is the last day of the month calculated from the start date plus or minus a number of months.
start_date  The 'from' date. 
months  The number of months to be added or subtracted. 
Returns the hour number (between 0 and 23) from the specified date/time value.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want to extract the hour number. 
Returns the ISO week number for the specified date.
date  The date for which you want the ISO week number. 
Returns the minute number (between 0 and 59) from the specified date/time value.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want to extract the minute number. 
Returns the month number (between 1 and 12) from the specified date/time value.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want to extract the month number. 
NETWORKDAYS(start_date, end_date, [holidays])
Returns the number of working days (weekdays) between the start and end dates, excluding any holidays.
start_date  The 'from' date. 
end_date  The 'to' date. 
holidays  A date or array of dates or a reference to a list of dates that are to be treated as nonworking days. 
NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])
Returns the number of working days (weekdays) between the start and end dates, excluding any holidays.
start_date  The 'from' date.  
end_date  The 'to' date.  
weekend  A sevencharacter string that indicates which days of the week from Monday to Sunday are not working days, or a number that refers to such a string. The possible number values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
holidays  A date or array of dates or a reference to a list of dates that are to be treated as nonworking days. 
Returns the serial number corresponding to the current date and time.
Returns the second number (between 0 and 59) from the specified date/time value.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want to extract the second number. 
Returns the serial number corresponding to a specified hour, minute and second.
hour  The hour number. Preferably between 0 and 23. 
minute  The minute number. Preferably between 0 and 59. 
second  The second number. Preferably between 0 and 59. 
Returns the time value that corresponds to a time in text form. You should not need to use this function, as times are automatically converted from text to time values when they are used in formulas.
time_text  The time that you want to convert. It can contain time separators and/or AM/PM designators. If seconds or minutes and seconds are not specified then they will default to zero. 
Returns the serial number corresponding to the current date.
WEEKDAY(serial_number, [return_type])
Returns a number representing the day of the week of a given date.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want the day of the week.  
return_type  The range of values returned and what they represent. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
WEEKNUM(serial_number, [return_type])
Returns the week of the year of a given date.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want the week number.  
return_type  The method used to calculate the week number. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
WORKDAY(start_date, number_days, [holidays])
Returns the working day that is the start date plus or minus a number of working days (weekdays), excluding any holidays.
start_date  The 'from' date. 
number_days  The number of working days to add or subtract. 
holidays  A date or array of dates or a reference to a list of dates that are to be treated as nonworking days. 
WORKDAY.INTL(start_date, number_days, [weekend], [holidays])
Returns the working day that is the start date plus or minus a number of working days (weekdays), excluding any holidays.
start_date  The 'from' date.  
number_days  The number of working days to add or subtract.  
weekend  A sevencharacter string that indicates which days of the week from Monday to Sunday are not working days, or a number that refers to such a string. The possible number values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
holidays  A date or array of dates or a reference to a list of dates that are to be treated as nonworking days. 
Returns the year number (greater than or equal to 1900) from the specified date/time value.
serial_number  The date/time value from which you want to extract the year number. 
YEARFRAC(start_date, end_date, [basis])
Returns the fraction of a year represented by the difference between two dates.
start_date  The 'from' date.  
end_date  The 'to' date.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the value of the modified Bessel function.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
n  The order of the Bessel function. 
Returns the value of the Bessel function.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
n  The order of the Bessel function. 
Returns the value of the modified Bessel function.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
n  The order of the Bessel function. 
Returns the value of the Bessel function.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
n  The order of the Bessel function. 
Returns the decimal equivalent of a binary number.
number  The binary number to be converted. It can be a number or a string up to 10 (binary) digits long. 
Returns a string that is the hexadecimal equivalent of a binary number.
number  The binary number to be converted. It can be a number or a string up to 10 (binary) digits long. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a string that is the octal equivalent of a binary number.
number  The binary number to be converted. It can be a number or a string up to 10 (binary) digits long. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns the bitwise AND of two numbers.
number1  The first number whose bits are to be compared. 
number2  The second number whose bits are to be compared. 
BITLSHIFT(number, shift_amount)
Returns the number shifted left by the specified number of bits.
number  The number whose bits are to be shifted. 
shift_amount  The number of places by which to shift the bits. 
Returns the bitwise OR of two numbers.
number1  The first number whose bits are to be compared. 
number2  The second number whose bits are to be compared. 
BITRSHIFT(number, shift_amount)
Returns the number shifted right by the specified number of bits.
number  The number whose bits are to be shifted. 
shift_amount  The number of places by which to shift the bits. 
Returns the bitwise XOR of two numbers.
number1  The first number whose bits are to be compared. 
number2  The second number whose bits are to be compared. 
COMPLEX(real_num, imag_num, [suffix])
Returns a string representing an complex number made up of the specified real and imaginary parts.
real_num  The real part of the complex number. 
imag_num  The imaginary part of the complex number. 
suffix  The suffix to be used for the imaginary part. Should be "i" or "j". If this parameter is omitted it defaults to "i". 
CONVERT(number, from_unit, to_unit)
Returns a value converted from the 'from' units to the 'to' units.
number  The number to be converted.  
from_unit  The units to convert from.  
to_unit  The units to convert to.  
The from and to units must belong to the same group. The values are casesensitive and must be entered exactly as shown. The possible values are:  
Weight and mass  
 
Distance  
 
Time  
 
Pressure  
 
Force  
 
Energy  
 
Power  
 
Magnetism  
 
Temperature  
 
Liquid measure  

Returns a string that is the binary equivalent of a decimal number.
number  The decimal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a string that is the hexadecimal equivalent of a decimal number.
number  The decimal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a string that is the octal equivalent of a decimal number.
number  The decimal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns 1 if the numbers are equal, otherwise 0.
number1  The first of the numbers to be compared. 
number2  The second of the numbers to be compared. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
ERF(lower_limit, [upper_limit])
Returns the integral of the error function between specified limits, or between zero and a specified limit.
lower_limit  The lower limit of the integral. 
upper_limit  The upper limit of the integral. If this parameter is omitted integration is done between 0 and lower_limit. 
Returns the integral of the error function between specified limits, or between zero and a specified limit.
x  The lower limit of the integral. 
Returns the integral of the error function between a specified limit and infinity.
x  The lower limit of the integral. 
Returns the integral of the error function between a specified limit and infinity.
x  The lower limit of the integral. 
Returns 1 if number is greater than or equal to step, otherwise 0.
number  The first of the numbers to be compared. 
step  The second of the numbers to be compared. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a string that is the binary equivalent of a hexadecimal number.
number  The hexadecimal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a number that is the decimal equivalent of a hexadecimal number.
number  The hexadecimal number to be converted. 
Returns a string that is the octal equivalent of a hexadecimal number.
number  The hexadecimal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a number that is the modulus of a complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the modulus. 
Returns a number that is the imaginary part of a complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the imaginary part. 
Returns a number that is the angle (in radians) represented by a complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the argument. 
Returns a complex number that is the conjugate of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the conjugate. 
Returns a complex number that is the cosine of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the cosine. 
Returns a complex number that is the hyperbolic cosine of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the hyperbolic cosine. 
Returns a complex number that is the cotangent of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the cotangent. 
Returns a complex number that is the cosecant of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the cosecant. 
Returns a complex number that is the hyperbolic cosecant of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the hyperbolic cosecant. 
Returns a complex number that is the quotient of the specified complex numbers.
inumber1  The dividend complex number. 
inumber2  The divisor complex number. 
Returns a complex number that is the exponential of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the exponential. 
Returns a complex number that is the natural logarithm of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the natural logarithm. 
Returns a complex number that is the base 10 logarithm of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the base 10 logarithm. 
Returns a complex number that is the base 2 logarithm of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the base 2 logarithm. 
Returns a complex number that is the specified complex number raised to a power.
inumber  The complex number that you want to raise to a power. 
power  The power to which you want to raise the complex number. 
IMPRODUCT(inumber1, [inumber2, ...])
Returns a complex number that is the product of the specified complex numbers.
inumber1, ...  The complex numbers that you want to multiply together. 
Returns a number that is the real part of a complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the real part. 
Returns a complex number that is the secant of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the secant. 
Returns a complex number that is the hyperbolic secant of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the hyperbolic secant. 
Returns a complex number that is the sine of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the sine. 
Returns a complex number that is the hyperbolic sine of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the hyperbolic sine. 
Returns a complex number that is the square root of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the square root. 
Returns a complex number that is the difference of the specified complex numbers.
inumber1  The minuend complex number. 
inumber2  The subtrahend complex number. 
IMSUM(inumber1, [inumber2, ...])
Returns a complex number that is the sum of the specified complex numbers.
inumber1, ...  The complex numbers that you want to add together. 
Returns a complex number that is the tangent of the specified complex number.
inumber  The complex number of which you want the tangent. 
Returns a string that is the binary equivalent of an octal number.
number  The octal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
Returns a number that is the decimal equivalent of an octal number.
number  The octal number to be converted. 
Returns a string that is the hexadecimal equivalent of an octal number.
number  The octal number to be converted. 
places  The minimum length required in the returned string. If the string is less than this length then it will be padded with leading zeros. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
ACCRINT(issue_date, first_interest_date, settlement_date, rate, par, frequency, [basis])
Returns accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.
issue_date  The issue date.  
first_interest_date  The first interest date.  
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
par  The par value.  
frequency  The number of interest payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
ACCRINTM(issue_date, maturity_date, rate, [par], [basis])
Returns accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity.
issue_date  The issue date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
par  The par value. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1000.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
AMORDEGRC(cost, purchase_date, first_period_date, salvage, period, rate, [basis])
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.
cost  The cost.  
purchase_date  The purchase date.  
first_period_date  The end date of the first period.  
salvage  The salvage value.  
period  The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.  
rate  The depreciation rate.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
AMORLINC(cost, purchase_date, first_period_date, salvage, period, rate, [basis])
Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.
cost  The cost.  
purchase_date  The purchase date.  
first_period_date  The end date of the first period.  
salvage  The salvage value.  
period  The period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.  
rate  The depreciation rate.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
COUPDAYBS(settlement_date, maturity_date, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
COUPDAYS(settlement_date, maturity_date, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
COUPDAYSNC(settlement_date, maturity_date, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
COUPNCD(settlement_date, maturity_date, frequency, [basis])
Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
COUPNUM(settlement_date, maturity_date, frequency, [basis])
Returns the number of coupon periods between the settlement date and the maturity date.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
COUPPCD(settlement_date, maturity_date, frequency, [basis])
Returns the coupon date before the settlement date.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
CUMIPMT(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)
Returns the cumulative interest paid on a loan in the specified periods.
rate  The interest rate.  
nper  The total number of periods.  
pv  The present value.  
start_period  The first period number for which to calculate interest.  
end_period  The last period number for which to calculate interest.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  

CUMPRINC(rate, nper, pv, start_period, end_period, type)
Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan in the specified periods.
rate  The interest rate.  
nper  The total number of periods.  
pv  The present value.  
start_period  The first period number for which to calculate interest.  
end_period  The last period number for which to calculate interest.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  

DB(cost, salvage, life, period, [month])
Returns the depreciation in a specified period using the fixed declining balance method.
cost  The cost. 
salvage  The salvage value. 
life  The total number of periods. 
period  The period number for which to calculate depreciation. 
month  The number of months in the first year. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 12. 
DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, [factor])
Returns the depreciation in a specified period using the double declining balance method.
cost  The cost. 
salvage  The salvage value. 
life  The total number of periods. 
period  The period number for which to calculate depreciation. 
factor  The rate at which the balance declines. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2. 
DISC(settlement_date, maturity_date, pr, redemption, [basis])
Returns the discount rate for a security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
pr  The price per $100 value.  
redemption  The redemption per $100 value.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar, fraction)
Returns the decimal equivalent of a dollar price expressed as a fraction.
fractional_dollar  The value expressed as a fraction. 
fraction  The fraction denominator. 
DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar, fraction)
Returns the fraction equivalent of a dollar price expressed as a decimal.
decimal_dollar  The value expressed as a decimal. 
fraction  The fraction denominator. 
DURATION(settlement_date, maturity_date, coupon, yield, frequency, [basis])
Returns the Macauley duration for a value of $100.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
coupon  The interest rate.  
yield  The annual yield rate.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the effective annual interest rate.
nominal_rate  The nominal annual interest rate. 
npery  The number of compound interest payments per year. 
FV(rate, term, payment, [pv], [type])
Returns the future value of an investment at a fixed rate.
rate  The interest rate per period.  
term  The total number of periods.  
payment  The payment amount each period.  
pv  The present value. If this parameter is omitted it is assumed to be zero.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
FVSCHEDULE(principal, schedule_range)
Returns the future value of an investment at a variable rate.
principal  The initial value of the investment. 
schedule_range  The list (array or reference) of interest rates to be applied. 
INTRATE(settlement_date, maturity_date, investment_amount, redemption_amount, [basis])
Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
investment_amount  The initial value.  
redemption_amount  The final value.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
IPMT(rate, period, term, pv, [fv], [type])
Returns the interest payment for a given period.
rate  The interest rate per period.  
period  The period for which you want the interest amount.  
term  The total number of periods.  
pv  The present value.  
fv  The future value. If this parameter is omitted it is assumed to be zero.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the internal rate of return.
values_range  The list (array or reference) of payment and income values. 
guess  The estimated rate of return. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.1. 
Returns the interest payment for a given period.
rate  The interest rate per period. 
period  The period for which you want the interest amount. 
term  The total number of periods. 
pv  The present value. 
MDURATION(settlement_date, maturity_date, coupon, yield, frequency, [basis])
Returns the modified Macauley duration for a value of $100.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
coupon  The interest rate.  
yield  The annual yield rate.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
MIRR(values_range, finance_rate, reinvest_rate)
Returns the modified internal rate of return.
values_range  The list (array or reference) of payment and income values. 
finance_rate  The interest rate on the payment values. 
reinvest_rate  The interest rate on the income values. 
Returns the nominal annual interest rate.
effect_rate  The effective annual interest rate. 
npery  The number of compound interest payments per year. 
NPER(rate, payment, pv, [fv], [type])
Returns the number of periods required for an investment.
rate  The interest rate per period.  
payment  The payment amount per period.  
pv  The present value.  
fv  The future value. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
NPV(rate, value1, [value2, ...])
Returns the net present value of an investment.
rate  The discount rate per period. 
value1, ...  The payment and income amounts. 
ODDFPRICE(settlement_date, maturity_date, issue_date, first_coupon_date, rate, yield, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
issue_date  The issue date.  
first_coupon_date  The first coupon date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
yield  The annual yield rate.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
ODDFYIELD(settlement_date, maturity_date, issue_date, first_coupon_date, rate, price, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the yield of a security having an odd (short or long) first period.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
issue_date  The issue date.  
first_coupon_date  The first coupon date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
price  The price per $100.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
ODDLPRICE(settlement_date, maturity_date, last_coupon_date, rate, yield, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) last period.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
last_coupon_date  The last coupon date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
yield  The annual yield rate.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
ODDLYIELD(settlement_date, maturity_date, last_coupon_date, rate, price, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the yield of a security having an odd (short or long) last period.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
last_coupon_date  The last coupon date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
price  The price per $100.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the number of periods required for an investment to reach a specified value.
rate  The interest rate per period. 
pv  The present value of the investment. 
fv  The future value of the investment. 
PMT(rate, term, [pv], [fv], [type])
Returns the payment amount for a loan.
rate  The interest rate per period.  
term  The total number of periods.  
pv  The present value of the loan. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
fv  The future value of the loan. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
PPMT(rate, period, term, pv, [fv], [type])
Returns the payment on the principal for a specified period.
rate  The interest rate per period.  
period  The period for which you want the payment amount.  
term  The total number of periods.  
pv  The present value of the loan.  
fv  The future value of the loan. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
PRICE(settlement_date, maturity_date, rate, yield, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the price per $100 of a security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
yield  The annual yield rate.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
PRICEDISC(settlement_date, maturity_date, discount, redemption, [basis])
Returns the price per $100 of a discounted security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
discount  The discount rate.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
PRICEMAT(settlement_date, maturity_date, issue_date, rate, yield, [basis])
Returns the price per $100 of a security that pays interest at maturity.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
issue_date  The issue date.  
rate  The interest rate.  
yield  The annual yield rate.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
PV(rate, term, payment, [fv], [type])
Returns the present value of an investment at a fixed rate.
rate  The interest rate per period.  
term  The total number of periods.  
payment  The payment amount each period.  
fv  The future value. If this parameter is omitted it is assumed to be zero.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
RATE(term, payment, pv, [fv], [type], [guess])
Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity.
term  The total number of periods.  
payment  The payment amount each period.  
pv  The present value.  
fv  The future value. If this parameter is omitted it is assumed to be zero.  
type  The timing of the payment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
guess  The estimated rate of return. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.1. 
RECEIVED(settlement_date, maturity_date, investment, discount, [basis])
Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
investment  The investment amount.  
discount  The discount rate.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the interest rate for the growth of an investment.
nper  The number of periods. 
salvage  The present value. 
life  The future value. 
Returns the straight line depreciation.
cost  The cost. 
salvage  The salvage value. 
life  The total number of periods. 
SYD(cost, salvage, life, period)
Returns the sum of years depreciation.
cost  The cost. 
salvage  The salvage value. 
life  The total number of periods. 
period  The period for which you want the depreciation. 
TBILLEQ(settlement_date, maturity_date, discount)
Returns the bondequivalent yield for a treasury bill.
settlement_date  The settlement date. 
maturity_date  The maturity date. 
discount  The discount rate. 
TBILLPRICE(settlement_date, maturity_date, discount)
Returns the price per $100 for a treasury bill.
settlement_date  The settlement date. 
maturity_date  The maturity date. 
discount  The discount rate. 
TBILLYIELD(settlement_date, maturity_date, price)
Returns the yield for a treasury bill.
settlement_date  The settlement date. 
maturity_date  The maturity date. 
price  The price per $100. 
VDB(cost, salvage, life, start_period, end_period, [factor], [no_switch])
Returns the depreciation in a specified range of periods using the variable declining balance method.
cost  The cost.  
salvage  The salvage value.  
life  The total number of periods.  
start_period  The first period number for which to calculate depreciation.  
end_period  The last period number for which to calculate depreciation.  
factor  The rate at which the balance declines. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2.  
no_switch  Specifies whether to switch to straightline depreciation when the straightline depreciation is greater than the declining balance depreciation. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
XIRR(values_range, dates_range, [guess])
Returns the internal rate of return.
values_range  The list (array or reference) of payment and income values. 
dates_range  The list (array or reference) of the dates of the payment and income values. 
guess  The estimated rate of return. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.1. 
XNPV(rate, values_range, dates_range)
Returns the net present value of an investment.
rate  The discount rate per period. 
values_range  The list (array or reference) of payment and income values. 
dates_range  The list (array or reference) of the dates of the payment and income values. 
YIELD(settlement_date, maturity_date, rate, price, redemption, frequency, [basis])
Returns the yield on a security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
rate  The annual coupon rate.  
price  The price per $100.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
frequency  The number of coupon payments per year. Should be 1, 2 or 4.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
YIELDDISC(settlement_date, maturity_date, price, redemption, [basis])
Returns the annual yield for a discounted security.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
price  The price per $100.  
redemption  The redemption value per $100.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
YIELDMAT(settlement_date, maturity_date, issue_date, rate, price, [basis])
Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.
settlement_date  The settlement date.  
maturity_date  The maturity date.  
issue_date  The issue date.  
rate  The interest rate.  
price  The price per $100.  
basis  The method used to represent the number of days in the period versus the number of days in a year. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns information about a worksheet cell.
info_type  The type of information you want returned. The possible values are:  
 
reference  The cell about which you want information. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the cell containing the formula. 
Returns a number corresponding to the type of the error.
error_val  The error value, or cell containing the error value, that you want to check.  
The returned values are:  

Returns information about the current spreadsheet.
type_text  The type of information you want returned. The possible values are:  

Returns TRUE if the value is a reference to an empty cell, otherwise FALSE.
value  The cell whose value you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is an error other than #N/A, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is an error, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the number is even, otherwise FALSE.
number  The number you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the cell contains a formula, otherwise FALSE.
reference  The cell you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is the error #N/A, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is not a string, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is a number, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the number is odd, otherwise FALSE.
number  The number you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is a reference, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns TRUE if the value is a string, otherwise FALSE.
value  The expression whose result you want to check. 
Returns a number corresponding to the input value, or 0 if the input value is a string. You should not need to use this function, as values are automatically converted where necessary when they are used in formulas.
value  The value you want as a number. 
Returns the error value #N/A.
Returns the number of the specified sheet.
value  A reference or sheet name. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the sheet containing the function. 
Returns the number of sheets in the specified reference.
value  A reference to one or more sheets. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to all sheets in the file containing the function. 
Returns a number corresponding to the type of the value.
value  The value, or cell containing the value, that you want to check.  
The returned values are:  

AND(logical1, [logical2, ...])
Returns TRUE if all of the input values are TRUE, otherwise FALSE.
logical1, ...  The values that you want to check. 
Returns the logical value FALSE.
IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
Returns one of two other values depending no whether the logical test evaluates to TRUE or FALSE.
logical_test  An expression that results in TRUE or FALSE. 
value_if_true  The value to be returned if the logical test is TRUE. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
value_if_false  The value to be returned if the logical test is FALSE. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
IFERROR(value, value_if_error)
Returns the result of a formula, or a different value if the result of the formula is an error.
value  The expression that may result in an error. 
value_if_error  The value to be returned if the expression returns an error. 
Returns the result of a formula, or a different value if the result of the formula is the error #N/A.
value  The expression that may result in the error #N/A. 
value_if_error  The value to be returned if the expression returns the error #N/A. 
IFS(logical1, [value_if_true1], [logical2, value_if_true2, ...])
Returns the value corresponding to the first TRUE logical test in the list. If none of them are TRUE then it returns the error #N/A.
logical1 ...  The value that you want to check. 
value_if_true1 ...  The value to be returned if the logical expression is true. 
Returns TRUE if the input expression evaluates to FALSE, and vice versa.
logical  The logical expression for which you want the opposite value. 
Returns TRUE if any of the input values are TRUE, otherwise FALSE.
logical1, ...  The values that you want to check. 
SWITCH(expression, value1, result1, [default or value2, result2, ...])
Returns the result corresponding to the matching value, or the default value if there are no matches (or #N/A if there is no default value).
expression  The value to be matched against the entries in the list. 
value1 ...  The entry to be compared with the expression. 
result1 ...  The result to be returned if the expression matches the value. 
Returns the logical value TRUE.
XOR(logical1, [logical2, ...])
Returns TRUE if an odd number of the input values are TRUE, otherwise FALSE.
logical1, ...  The values that you want to check. 
ADDRESS(row_num, column_num, [abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text])
Returns a string containing the specified cell address.
row_num  The row number of the cell.  
column_num  The column number of the cell.  
abs_num  A number representing whether the row or column are to be absolute or relative. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
a1  Specifies the style of the reference. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE.  
sheet_text  Optional sheet name with which to prefix the reference. 
Returns the number of areas contained in the reference.
reference  The reference whose areas you want to count. 
CHOOSE(index_num, value1, [value2, ...])
Returns one of several values depending on the index.
index_num  The index of the value to be returned, should be in the range 1 to 29. 
value1, ...  Up to 29 values, one of which will be chosen to be the result. 
Returns the column number of the reference.
reference  The reference whose column number you want. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the cell containing the function. 
Returns the number of columns in the reference.
array  The reference whose columns you want to count. 
Returns the formula entered in a cell.
reference  The reference whose formula you want to retrieve. 
HLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_range, row_index_num, [range_lookup])
Returns a value from a horizontal table, found by searching for the lookup value in the top row of the table and then returning a value from the same or a different row in the table.
lookup_value  The value to be found in the table.  
table_range  A reference containing the table cells.  
row_index_num  The offset of the value to be returned, where 1 is the top row of the table.  
range_lookup  Whether to find an approximate or exact match. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
HYPERLINK(link_location, [friendly_name])
Jumps to a cell or range when this cell is selected.
link_location  A text expression that evaluates to the form "filename" or "[filename]reference". 
friendly_name  The text to be displayed in the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the link location text. 
INDEX(reference, [row_num], [col_num], [area_num])
Returns a subset of an array or reference.
reference  The array or reference of which you want the subset. 
row_num  The number of the row to return. If this parameter is omitted all rows will be returned. 
col_num  The number of the column to return. If this parameter is omitted all columns will be returned. 
area_num  The number of the area to return when the reference contains more than one area. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns a reference from the specified text.
ref_text  A text expression that evaluates to the name of a cell or range of cells.  
a1  Specifies the style of the reference. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
LOOKUP(lookup_value, lookup_range, [result_range])
Returns a value from a horizontal or vertical table, found by searching for the lookup value in the top row (for a horizontal table) or left column (for a vertical or square table) of the table and then returning a value from the corresponding position in the result range (if specified) or from the bottom row (for a horizontal table) or right column (for a vertical or square table) of the table.
lookup_value  The value to be found in the table. 
table_range  A reference containing the table cells. 
result_range  The range of cells from which to return a result. If this parameter is not specified the result will be returned from the opposite row or column of the table range. 
MATCH(lookup_value, lookup_range, [match_type])
Returns a number representing the position of a value in a table.
lookup_value  The value to be found in the table.  
lookup_range  A reference containing the table cells.  
match_type  Whether to find an approximate or exact match. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
OFFSET(reference, rows, cols, [height], [width])
Returns a new reference based on the specified reference.
reference  The reference to be used as a starting point. 
rows  The number of rows to move the reference up (negative) or down (positive). 
cols  The number of columns to move the reference left (negative) or right (positive). 
height  The height of the new reference. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the height of the old reference. 
width  The width of the new reference. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the width of the old reference. 
Returns the row number of the reference.
reference  The reference whose row number you want. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the cell containing the function. 
Returns the number of rows in the reference.
array  The reference whose rows you want to count. 
Returns the transposition of the specified array or reference.
array  The array or reference whose values you want to transpose. 
VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_range, col_index_num, [range_lookup])
Returns a value from a vertical table, found by searching for the lookup value in the left column of the table and then returning a value from the same or a different column in the table.
lookup_value  The value to be found in the table.  
table_range  A reference containing the table cells.  
col_index_num  The offset of the value to be returned, where 1 is the left column of the table.  
range_lookup  Whether to find an approximate or exact match. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Returns the absolute value of a number.
number  The number for which you want the absolute value. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the arccosine of a number.
number  The number for which you want the arccosine. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
number  The number for which you want the inverse hyperbolic cosine. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the arccotangent of a number.
number  The number for which you want the arccotangent. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number.
number  The number for which you want the inverse hyperbolic cotangent. 
AGGREGATE(function_num, [options], ref1, [ref2, ...])
Returns an aggregate value for items in a list.
function_num  The aggregate function that you want. The possible values are:  
 
options  Which values are to be excluded from the calculation. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
ref1, ...  For functions 1 to 13, these are the ranges of cells that you want aggregated. For functions 14 to 19, ref1 is the range of cells and ref2 is the function second parameter. 
Returns the decimal equivalent of a number in Roman numerals.
number  The number to convert from Roman numerals to decimal. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the arcsine of a number.
number  The number for which you want the arcsine. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
number  The number for which you want the inverse hyperbolic sine. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the arctangent of a number.
number  The number for which you want the arctangent. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to a pair of coordinates.
x_num  The x coordinate for which you want the angle. 
y_num  The y coordinate for which you want the angle. 
Returns the angle in radians corresponding to the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
number  The number for which you want the inverse hyperbolic tangent. 
BASE(number, radix, [min_length])
Returns the text representation of a decimal number in a different base.
number  The number to be converted. 
radix  The base to use for conversion. This should be between 2 and 36. 
min_length  The minimum length for the returned string. If the result is shorter than this value, then it will be padded on the left with zeros. 
Returns the number rounded up (away from zero) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. 
CEILING.MATH(number, [significance], [mode])
Returns the number rounded up (usually towards +infinity) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
mode  If mode is nonzero then negative numbers are rounded towards infinity. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
CEILING.PRECISE(number, [significance])
Returns the number rounded up (towards +infinity) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns the number of combinations in which a number of items can be chosen from a total number.
number  The total number of items. 
number_chosen  The number of items chosen. 
COMBINA(number, number_chosen)
Returns the number of combinations in which a number of items can be chosen (with repetitions) from a total number.
number  The total number of items. 
number_chosen  The number of items chosen. 
Returns the cosine of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the cosine. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the hyperbolic cosine. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the cotangent of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the cotangent. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the hyperbolic cotangent. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the cosecant of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the cosecant. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the hyperbolic cosecant. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the decimal value of a number in a specified base.
text  The number represented in the specified base. 
radix  The base. 
Converts an angle from radians to degrees.
angle  The angle that you want to convert. 
ECMA.CEILING(number, significance)
Returns the number rounded up (away from zero) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. 
Returns the number rounded up to the next even number.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
Returns the e raised to the power number.
number  The power to which you want to raise e. 
Returns the factorial of a number.
number  The number of which you want the factorial. 
Returns the double factorial of a number.
number  The number of which you want the double factorial. 
Returns the number rounded down (towards zero) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. 
FLOOR.MATH(number, [significance], [mode])
Returns the number rounded down (usually towards infinity) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
mode  If mode is nonzero then negative numbers are rounded towards +infinity. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
FLOOR.PRECISE(number, [significance])
Returns the number rounded down (towards infinity) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns the greatest common divisor of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the greatest common divisor. 
Returns the number rounded down to the next integer.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
ISO.CEILING(number, [significance])
Returns the number rounded up (towards +infinity) to the next multiple of significance.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
significance  The units you want to use for rounding. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns the lowest common multiple of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the lowest common multiple. 
Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
number  The number for which you want the natural logarithm. 
Returns the logarithm of a number in a specified base.
number  The number for which you want the logarithm. 
base  The base in which you want the logarithm. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 10. 
Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number.
number  The number for which you want the base 10 logarithm. 
Returns the determinant of a matrix.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the matrix. 
Returns the inverse of a matrix.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the matrix. 
Returns the product of two matrices.
array1  An array or reference to cells containing the first matrix. 
array2  An array or reference to cells containing the second matrix. 
Returns the remainder of a division.
number  The dividend. 
divisor  The divisor. 
Returns the number rounded to a multiple.
number  The number that you want rounded. 
multiple  The multiple to which you want the number rounded. 
MULTINOMIAL(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the factorial of the sum of the values divided by the product of their factorials.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the multinomial. 
Returns a unit matrix of the specified dimension.
dimension  The dimension of the unit matrix. 
Returns the number rounded up to the next odd number.
number  The number which you want rounded. 
Returns the value of Pi.
Returns the number raised to the power.
number  The number which you want raised to a power. 
power  The power to which you want to raise the number. 
PRODUCT(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the product of a list of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers that you want to multiply together. 
QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)
Returns the integer result of a division.
numerator  The dividend. 
denominator  The divisor. 
Converts an angle from degrees to radians.
angle  The angle that you want to convert. 
Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
RANDBETWEEN(smallest, largest)
Returns a random integer in the range you specify.
smallest  The lower limit of the range. 
largest  The upper limit of the range. 
Returns a string representing a number converted to roman numerals.
number  The number that you want to convert.  
form  Specifies the compactness of the representation. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns a number rounded to the number of decimal places specified.
number  The number that you want rounded. 
num_digits  The number of decimal places to round to (may be negative). 
ROUNDDOWN(number, [num_digits])
Returns a number rounded down to the number of decimal places specified.
number  The number that you want rounded. 
num_digits  The number of decimal places to round to (may be negative). If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns a number rounded up to the number of decimal places specified.
number  The number that you want rounded. 
num_digits  The number of decimal places to round to (may be negative). If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the secant of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the secant. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the hyperbolic secant. It must be specified in radians. 
SERIESSUM(x, n, m, coefficients)
Returns the value of a polynomial.
x  The number to be raised to a power. 
n  The power of the first term in the series. 
m  The difference between successive powers in the series. 
coefficients  An array or reference to cells containing the coefficients. 
Returns the sign of a number; 1 for positive, 1 for negative and 0 for zero.
number  The number of which you want the sign. 
Returns the sine of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the sine. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the hyperbolic sine. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the square root of a number.
number  The number of which you want the square root. 
Returns the square root of a number after it is multiplied by Pi.
number  The number which you want to multiply by Pi and then take the square root. 
SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, [ref2, ...])
Returns the subtotal of values in one or more ranges, excluding other subtotal figures.
function_num  The subtotal function that you want. The possible values are:  
 
ref1, ...  The ranges of cells that you want subtotalled. 
Returns the sum of a list of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers that you want to add together. 
SUMIF(range, criteria, [sum_range])
Returns the sum of cells in a specified range that meet the specified criteria.
range  A reference to the cells you want to check. 
criteria  A string containing a comparison expression. 
sum_range  A range containing values to be summed where the values in the first range meet the specified criteria. If this parameter is omitted then the values in the first range are summed. 
SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2, ...])
Returns the sum of cells in a specified range where corresponding cells in other ranges all meet specified criteria.
sum_range  A range containing values to be summed where the corresponding criteria are met. 
criteria_range1, ...  A reference to cells you want to check. 
criteria1, ...  A string containing a comparison expression. 
SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2, ...])
Returns the sum of the products of the cells in one or more ranges.
array1, ...  The ranges of cells where corresponding values are multiplied together and then summed. 
SUMSQ(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the sum of the squares of the numbers in the list.
number1, ...  The numbers that are to be squared and then summed. 
Returns the sum of the differences of the squares of the numbers in the ranges.
array_x  The first range of numbers. 
array_y  The second range of numbers. 
Returns the sum of the sums of the squares of the numbers in the ranges.
array_x  The first range of numbers. 
array_y  The second range of numbers. 
Returns the sum of the squares of the differences of the numbers in the ranges.
array_x  The first range of numbers. 
array_y  The second range of numbers. 
Returns the tangent of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the tangent. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle.
number  The angle for which you want the hyperbolic tangent. It must be specified in radians. 
Returns a number truncated to the number of decimal places specified.
number  The number that you want truncated. 
num_digits  The number of decimal places to truncate to (may be negative). 
AVEDEV(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the average of the differences of a set of numbers from their mean.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the average deviation. 
AVERAGE(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the average of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the average. 
AVERAGEA(value1, [value2, ...])
Returns the average of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the average. 
AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range])
Returns the average of cells in a specified range that meet the specified criteria.
range  A reference to the cells you want to check. 
criteria  A string containing a comparison expression. 
average_range  A range containing values to be averaged where the values in the first range meet the specified criteria. If this parameter is omitted then the values in the first range are averaged. 
AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2, ...])
Returns the average of cells in a specified range where corresponding cells in other ranges all meet specified criteria.
average_range  A range containing values to be averaged where the corresponding criteria are met. 
criteria_range1, ...  A reference to cells you want to check. 
criteria1, ...  A string containing a comparison expression. 
BETA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative, [A], [B])
Returns the beta distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
alpha  The alpha value.  
beta  The beta value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  
 
A  The lower limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
B  The upper limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
BETA.INV(probability, alpha, beta, [A], [B])
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative beta distribution probability.
probability  The cumulative beta distribution probability for which you want the value. 
alpha  The alpha value. 
beta  The beta value. 
A  The lower limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
B  The upper limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
BETADIST(x, alpha, beta, [A], [B])
Returns the cumulative beta distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
alpha  The alpha value. 
beta  The beta value. 
A  The lower limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
B  The upper limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
BETAINV(probability, alpha, beta, [A], [B])
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative beta distribution probability.
probability  The cumulative beta distribution probability for which you want the value. 
alpha  The alpha value. 
beta  The beta value. 
A  The lower limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
B  The upper limit. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
BINOM.DIST(number_successes, trials, probability, cumulative)
Returns the binomial distribution probability.
number_successes  The number of trials that are successful.  
trials  The total number of trials.  
probability  The probability of a single trial being successful.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

BINOM.DIST.RANGE(trials, probability_s, number_s, [number_s2])
Returns the binomial distribution probability.
trials  The total number of trials. 
probability  The probability of a single trial being successful. 
number_s  The number of trials that are successful (lower limit). 
number_s2  The number of trials that are successful (upper limit). 
BINOM.INV(trials, probability_s, alpha)
Returns the value at which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to alpha.
trials  The total number of trials. 
probability_s  The probability of a single trial being successful. 
alpha  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
BINOMDIST(number_successes, trials, probability, cumulative)
Returns the binomial distribution probability.
number_successes  The number of trials that are successful.  
trials  The total number of trials.  
probability  The probability of a single trial being successful.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

Returns the chisquared distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom  The number of degrees of freedom. 
CHIINV(probability, degrees_freedom)
Returns the value associated with the specified chisquared distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom  The number of degrees of freedom. 
CHISQ.DIST(x, degrees_freedom, cumulative)
Returns the chisquared distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
degrees_freedom  The number of degrees of freedom.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

CHISQ.DIST.RT(x, degrees_freedom)
Returns the chisquared distribution righttailed probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom  The number of degrees of freedom. 
CHISQ.INV(probability, degrees_freedom)
Returns the value associated with the specified chisquared distribution lefttailed probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom  The number of degrees of freedom. 
CHISQ.INV.RT(probability, degrees_freedom)
Returns the value associated with the specified chisquared distribution righttailed probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom  The number of degrees of freedom. 
CHISQ.TEST(actual_range, expected_range)
Returns the probability result of the chisquared test.
actual_range  An array or reference to cells containing the empirical results. 
expected_range  An array or reference to cells containing the theoretical results. 
CHITEST(actual_range, expected_range)
Returns the probability result of the chisquared test.
actual_range  An array or reference to cells containing the empirical results. 
expected_range  An array or reference to cells containing the theoretical results. 
CONFIDENCE(alpha, standard_deviation, size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
alpha  The significance level. 
standard_deviation  The population standard deviation. 
size  The sample size. 
CONFIDENCE.NORM(alpha, standard_deviation, size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean using a normal distribution.
alpha  The significance level. 
standard_deviation  The population standard deviation. 
size  The sample size. 
CONFIDENCE.T(alpha, standard_deviation, size)
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean using a Student's T distribution.
alpha  The significance level. 
standard_deviation  The population standard deviation. 
size  The sample size. 
Returns the correlation coefficient of two ranges.
range1  The first range to be compared. 
range2  The second range to be compared. 
Returns the count of numbers in a list.
value1, ...  The items whose numbers are to be counted. 
Returns the count of values in a list.
value1, ...  The items whose values are to be counted. 
Returns the number of blank cells in a range.
range  The reference of the cells you want to check. 
Returns the number of cells in a specified range that meet the specified criteria.
range  A reference to the cells you want to count. 
criteria  A string containing a comparison expression. 
COUNTIFS(range1, criteria1, [range2, criteria2, ...])
Returns the number of times that cells in specified ranges all meet specified criteria.
range1, ...  A reference to a group of cells you want to count. 
criteria1, ...  A string containing a comparison expression. 
Returns the covariance of two ranges.
range1  The first range to be compared. 
range2  The second range to be compared. 
Returns the population covariance of two ranges.
range1  The first range to be compared. 
range2  The second range to be compared. 
Returns the sample covariance of two ranges.
range1  The first range to be compared. 
range2  The second range to be compared. 
CRITBINOM(trials, probability_s, alpha)
Returns the value at which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to alpha.
trials  The total number of trials. 
probability_s  The probability of a single trial being successful. 
alpha  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
DEVSQ(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the sum of the squares of the differences of a set of numbers from their mean.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the squared deviations. 
EXPON.DIST(x, lambda, cumulative)
Returns the exponential distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
lambda  The lambda value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

EXPONDIST(x, lambda, cumulative)
Returns the exponential distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
lambda  The lambda value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

F.DIST(x, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2, cumulative)
Returns the F distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
degrees_freedom1  The degrees of freedom of the first set.  
degrees_freedom2  The degrees of freedom of the second set.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

F.DIST.RT(x, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2)
Returns the righttailed F distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom1  The degrees of freedom of the first set. 
degrees_freedom2  The degrees of freedom of the second set. 
F.INV(probability, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2)
Returns the value associated with the specified F distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom1  The degrees of freedom of the first set. 
degrees_freedom2  The degrees of freedom of the second set. 
F.INV.RT(probability, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2)
Returns the value associated with the specified righttailed F distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom1  The degrees of freedom of the first set. 
degrees_freedom2  The degrees of freedom of the second set. 
Returns the probability result of the F test.
array1  The first range to be compared. 
array2  The second range to be compared. 
FDIST(x, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2)
Returns the F distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom1  The degrees of freedom of the first set. 
degrees_freedom2  The degrees of freedom of the second set. 
FINV(probability, degrees_freedom1, degrees_freedom2)
Returns the value associated with the specified F distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom1  The degrees of freedom of the first set. 
degrees_freedom2  The degrees of freedom of the second set. 
Returns the Fisher transformation.
x  The value at which to evaluate the function. 
Returns the inverse Fisher transformation.
y  The value at which to evaluate the function. 
FORECAST(x, known_ys, known_xs)
Returns the expected value of y for a given x value for a line passing through a specified set of points.
x  The x value at which to evaluate the function. 
known_ys  An array or reference to a range of cells containing the y values that are already known. 
known_xs  An array or reference to a range of cells containing the x values that are already known. 
FORECAST.LINEAR(x, known_ys, known_xs)
Returns the expected value of y for a given x value for a line passing through a specified set of points.
x  The x value at which to evaluate the function. 
known_ys  An array or reference to a range of cells containing the y values that are already known. 
known_xs  An array or reference to a range of cells containing the x values that are already known. 
FREQUENCY(data_array, bins_array)
Returns the counts of items in specified numeric categories.
data_array  An array or reference to a range of cells containing values to be counted. 
bins_array  An array or reference to a range of cells containing the upper limits for each category. 
Returns the probability result of the F test.
array1  The first range to be compared. 
array2  The second range to be compared. 
Returns the gamma function evaluated at x.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
GAMMA.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
Returns the gamma distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
alpha  The alpha value.  
beta  The beta value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

GAMMA.INV(probability, alpha, beta)
Returns the value associated with the specified gamma distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
alpha  The alpha value. 
beta  The beta value. 
GAMMADIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
Returns the gamma distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
alpha  The alpha value.  
beta  The beta value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

GAMMAINV(probability, alpha, beta)
Returns the value associated with the specified gamma distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
alpha  The alpha value. 
beta  The beta value. 
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function evaluated at x.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function evaluated at x.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
Returns the gauss function evaluated at z.
z  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
GEOMEAN(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the geometric mean of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the geometric mean. 
GROWTH(known_ys, [known_xs], [new_xs], [const])
Returns the expected values of y for given x values for an exponential curve passing through a specified set of points.
known_ys  The y values that are already known.  
known_xs  The x values that are already known. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to an array of values from 1 to the number of known ys.  
new_xs  The new x values for which y values are required. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the known xs.  
const  Specifies whether the line must pass through the origin. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
HARMEAN(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the harmonic mean of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the harmonic mean. 
HYPGEOM.DIST(sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_population, cumulative)
Returns the hypergeometric distribution probability.
sample_s  The number of sample trials that are successful.  
number_sample  The total number of trials in the sample.  
population_s  The number of population trials that are successful.  
number_population  The total number of trials in the population.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s, number_sample, population_s, number_population)
Returns the hypergeometric distribution probability.
sample_s  The number of sample trials that are successful. 
number_sample  The total number of trials in the sample. 
population_s  The number of population trials that are successful. 
number_population  The total number of trials in the population. 
Returns the expected value of y when x is zero for a line passing though a specified set of points.
y_range  The y values that are already known. 
x_range  The x values that are already known. 
Returns the kurtosis of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the kurtosis. 
Returns the k^{th} largest number in a set of numbers.
array  An array or reference to cells containing numbers of which you want the k^{th} largest. 
k  The rank of the number that you want. 
LINEST(known_ys, [known_xs], [const], [stats])
Returns the coefficients for a straight line using multiple linear regression.
known_ys  The y values that are already known.  
known_xs  One or more sets of x values corresponding to the known y values. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to an array of values from 1 to the number of known ys.  
const  Specifies whether the line must pass through the origin. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE.  
stats  Specifies whether the additional statistics are returned in the rows below the coefficients. These are: the standard error values for the coefficients, the R2 coefficient, the standard error for the Y estimate, the F statistic, the degrees of freedom, the regression sum of squares and the residual sum of squares. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
LOGEST(known_ys, [known_xs], [const], [stats])
Returns the coefficients for an exponential curve using multiple linear regression.
known_ys  The y values that are already known.  
known_xs  One or more sets of x values corresponding to the known y values. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to an array of values from 1 to the number of known ys.  
const  Specifies whether the line must pass through the origin. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE.  
stats  Specifies whether the additional statistics are returned in the rows below the coefficients. These are: the standard error values for the coefficients, the R2 coefficient, the standard error for the Y estimate, the F statistic, the degrees of freedom, the regression sum of squares and the residual sum of squares. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
LOGINV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative lognormal distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
mean  The mean of the natural logarithms of the values. 
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the natural logarithms of the values. 
LOGNORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative)
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
mean  The mean of the natural logarithms of the values.  
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the natural logarithms of the values.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

LOGNORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative lognormal distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
mean  The mean of the natural logarithms of the values. 
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the natural logarithms of the values. 
LOGNORMDIST(x, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
mean  The mean of the natural logarithms of the values. 
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the natural logarithms of the values. 
Returns the maximum of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the maximum. 
Returns the maximum of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the maximum. 
MAXIFS(max_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2, ...])
Returns the maximum value of cells in a specified range where corresponding cells in other ranges all meet specified criteria.
max_range  A range containing values to be compared where the corresponding criteria are met. 
criteria_range1, ...  A reference to cells you want to check. 
criteria1, ...  A string containing a comparison expression. 
MEDIAN(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the median of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the median. 
Returns the minimum of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the minimum. 
Returns the minimum of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the minimum. 
MINIFS(max_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2, ...])
Returns the minimum value of cells in a specified range where corresponding cells in other ranges all meet specified criteria.
min_range  A range containing values to be compared where the corresponding criteria are met. 
criteria_range1, ...  A reference to cells you want to check. 
criteria1, ...  A string containing a comparison expression. 
Returns the mode of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the mode. 
MODE.MULT(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns a vertical array containing the mode values of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the mode. 
MODE.SNGL(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the mode of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the mode. 
NEGBINOM.DIST(number_f, number_s, probability_s, cumulative)
Returns the negative binomial distribution probability.
number_f  The number of trials that fail.  
number_s  The threshold number of trials that are successful.  
probability_s  The probability of a single trial being successful.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

NEGBINOMDIST(number_f, number_s, probability_s)
Returns the negative binomial distribution probability.
number_f  The number of trials that fail. 
number_s  The threshold number of trials that are successful. 
probability_s  The probability of a single trial being successful. 
NORM.DIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative)
Returns the normal distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
mean  The mean of the values.  
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the values.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

NORM.INV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative normal distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
mean  The mean of the values. 
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the values. 
Returns the standard normal distribution probability.
z  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative standard normal distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
NORMDIST(x, mean, standard_dev, cumulative)
Returns the normal distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
mean  The mean of the values.  
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the values.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

NORMINV(probability, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative normal distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
mean  The mean of the values. 
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the values. 
Returns the cumulative standard normal distribution probability.
z  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
Returns the value associated with the specified cumulative standard normal distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient.
array1  The first range to be compared. 
array2  The second range to be compared. 
Returns the k^{th} percentile of a set of values, where k is between 0 and 1 inclusive.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the values. 
k  The percentile value. 
Returns the k^{th} percentile of a set of values, where k is between 0 and 1 exclusive.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the values. 
k  The percentile value. 
Returns the k^{th} percentile of a set of values, where k is between 0 and 1 inclusive.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the values. 
k  The percentile value. 
PERCENTRANK(array, x, [significance])
Returns the percentile of a value in a set of values.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the values. 
x  The value of which you want the percentile. 
significance  The number of decimal places required in the result. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 3. 
PERCENTRANK.INC(array, x, [significance])
Returns the percentile of a value in a set of values.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the values. 
x  The value of which you want the percentile. 
significance  The number of decimal places required in the result. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 3. 
Returns the number of permutations in which a number of items can be chosen from a total number.
number  The total number of items. 
number_chosen  The number of items chosen. 
PERMUTATIONA(number, number_chosen)
Returns the number of permutations in which a number of items can be chosen (with repetitions) from a total number.
number  The total number of items. 
number_chosen  The number of items chosen. 
Returns the standard normal distribution probability density function.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
Returns the Poisson distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
mean  The mean of the values.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

POISSON.DIST(x, mean, cumulative)
Returns the Poisson distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
mean  The mean of the values.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

PROB(x_range, prob_range, lower_limit, [upper_limit])
Returns the probability that numbers in a set are between the specified limits.
x_range  An array or reference to cells containing the numbers. 
prob_range  An array or reference to cells containing the probabilities associated with each number. These values must add up to 1. 
lower_limit  The lower limit of the test. 
upper_limit  The upper limit of the test. If this value is omitted it defaults to the value specified for the lower limit. 
Returns the specified quartile of a set of numbers, based on the range 0 to 1 inclusive.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the numbers.  
quart  Specifies which quartile to return. The possible values are:  

Returns the specified quartile of a set of numbers, based on the range 0 to 1 exclusive.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the numbers.  
quart  Specifies which quartile to return. The possible values are:  

Returns the specified quartile of a set of numbers, based on the range 0 to 1 inclusive.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the numbers.  
quart  Specifies which quartile to return. The possible values are:  

Returns the rank of a number in a set of numbers.
number  The number of which you want the rank.  
range  An array or reference to cells containing the values.  
order  Specifies whether the list is treated as being in ascending or descending order of value. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
RANK.AVG(number, range, [order])
Returns the rank of a number in a set of numbers. If more than one value has the same rank then the average rank is returned.
number  The number of which you want the rank.  
range  An array or reference to cells containing the values.  
order  Specifies whether the list is treated as being in ascending or descending order of value. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
RANK.EQ(number, range, [order])
Returns the rank of a number in a set of numbers.
number  The number of which you want the rank.  
range  An array or reference to cells containing the values.  
order  Specifies whether the list is treated as being in ascending or descending order of value. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
Returns the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient.
y_array  The first range to be compared. 
x_array  The second range to be compared. 
Returns the skewness of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the skewness. 
SKEW.P(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the skewness of a set of numbers based on the population.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the skewness. 
Returns the slope of a line passing through a specified set of points.
y_range  The y values that are already known. 
x_range  The x values that are already known. 
Returns the k^{th} smallest number in a set of numbers.
array  An array or reference to cells containing numbers of which you want the k^{th} smallest. 
k  The rank of the number that you want. 
STANDARDIZE(x, mean, standard_dev)
Returns the standardized value of x for the specified mean and standard deviation.
x  The value that you want to standardize. 
mean  The mean of the values. 
standard_dev  The standard deviation of the values. 
STDEV(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the standard deviation (based on a population sample) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the standard deviation. 
STDEV.P(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the standard deviation (based on the entire population) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the standard deviation. 
STDEV.S(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the standard deviation (based on a population sample) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the standard deviation. 
Returns the standard deviation (based on a population sample) of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the standard deviation. 
STDEVP(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the standard deviation (based on the entire population) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the standard deviation. 
STDEVPA(value1, [value2, ...])
Returns the standard deviation (based on the entire population) of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the standard deviation. 
Returns the standard error of the y values of a line passing through a specified set of points.
y_range  The y values that are already known. 
x_range  The x values that are already known. 
T.DIST(x, degrees_freedom, cumulative)
Returns the Student's lefttailed T distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

Returns the Student's twotailed T distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom. 
Returns the Student's righttailed T distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom. 
T.INV(probability, degrees_freedom)
Returns the value associated with the specified Student's lefttailed T distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom. 
T.INV.2T(probability, degrees_freedom)
Returns the value associated with the specified Student's twotailed T distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom. 
T.TEST(array1, array2, tails, type)
Returns the probability result of the Student's T test.
array1  The first range to be compared.  
array2  The second range to be compared.  
tails  Specifies the tails to include in the distribution. Should be 1 or 2.  
type  Specifies which type of test is required. The possible values are:  

TDIST(x, degrees_freedom, tails)
Returns the Student's T distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function. 
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom. 
tails  Specifies the tails to include in the distribution. Should be 1 or 2. 
TINV(probability, degrees_freedom)
Returns the value associated with the specified Student's T distribution probability.
probability  The probability for which you want the value. 
degrees_freedom  The degrees of freedom. 
TREND(known_ys, [known_xs], [new_xs], [const])
Returns the expected values of y for given x values for a line passing through a specified set of points.
known_ys  The y values that are already known.  
known_xs  The x values that are already known. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to an array of values from 1 to the number of known ys.  
new_xs  The new x values for which y values are required. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the known xs.  
const  Specifies whether the line must pass through the origin. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Returns the mean of a set of numbers with the extreme values removed.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the numbers. 
percent  The percentage of the numbers to exclude from the calculation. 
TTEST(array1, array2, tails, type)
Returns the probability result of the Student's T test.
array1  The first range to be compared.  
array2  The second range to be compared.  
tails  Specifies the tails to include in the distribution. Should be 1 or 2.  
type  Specifies which type of test is required. The possible values are:  

Returns the variance (based on a population sample) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the variance. 
VAR.P(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the variance (based on the entire population) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the variance. 
VAR.S(number1, [number2, ...])
Returns the variance (based on a population sample) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the variance. 
Returns the variance (based on a population sample) of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the variance. 
Returns the variance (based on the entire population) of a set of numbers.
number1, ...  The numbers of which you want the variance. 
Returns the variance (based on the entire population) of a set of values.
value1, ...  The values of which you want the variance. 
WEIBULL(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
Returns the Weibull distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
alpha  The alpha value.  
beta  The beta value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

WEIBULL.DIST(x, alpha, beta, cumulative)
Returns the Weibull distribution probability.
x  The value at which you want to evaluate the function.  
alpha  The alpha value.  
beta  The beta value.  
cumulative  Specifies whether to return the cumulative probability or not. The possible values are:  

Returns the probability result of the z test.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the data against which x is to be tested. 
x  The value to be tested. 
sigma  The population standard deviation. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the sample standard deviation of the data. 
Returns the probability result of the z test.
array  An array or reference to cells containing the data against which x is to be tested. 
x  The value to be tested. 
sigma  The population standard deviation. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the sample standard deviation of the data. 
Converts fullwidth Katakana and ASCII characters to halfwidth.
text  The text that you want to convert. 
Returns the character corresponding to the specified position in the character set.
number  The number of the character that you want. 
Returns a string corresponding to the input string with any unprintable characters removed.
text  The text from which you want to remove unprintable characters. 
Returns the position in the character set of the first character in the string.
text  The character of which you want the character code. 
Returns a string consisting of the input strings concatenated together.
text1, ...  The strings or ranges containing strings that you want to concatenate. 
CONCATENATE(text1, [text2, ...])
Returns a string consisting of the input strings concatenated together.
text1, ...  The strings that you want to concatenate. 
Converts halfwidth Katakana and ASCII characters to fullwidth.
text  The text that you want to convert. 
Returns a string consisting of the input number rounded to the specified number of decimal places and converted to currency format.
number  The amount that you want to format. 
decimals  The number of decimal places required. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2. 
Returns TRUE if the input strings are exactly the same, otherwise FALSE.
text1  The first string to be compared. 
text2  The second string to be compared. 
FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
Returns a number corresponding to the character position of one text string within another. This functions is casesensitive and does not support wildcards. Use the SEARCH function for caseinsensitive or wildcard character support.
find_text  The text you want to find. 
within_text  The text to be searched. 
start_num  The position at which to start searching. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
FINDB(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
Returns a number corresponding to the byte position of one text string within another. This functions is casesensitive and does not support wildcards. Use the SEARCHB function for caseinsensitive or wildcard character support.
find_text  The text you want to find. 
within_text  The text to be searched. 
start_num  The position at which to start searching. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
FIXED(number, [decimals], [no_commas])
Returns a string consisting of the input number rounded to the specified number of decimal places.
number  The number that you want to format.  
decimals  The number of decimal places required. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2.  
no_commas  Specifies whether to suppress the thousands separator in the formatted number. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Returns a string consisting of the specified number of characters from the beginning of the input string.
text  The string of which you want the beginning. 
num_chars  The number of characters to extract from the string. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns a string consisting of the specified number of bytes from the beginning of the input string.
text  The string of which you want the beginning. 
num_bytes  The number of bytes to extract from the string. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns the length of the input string in characters.
text  The string of which you want the length. 
Returns the length of the input string in bytes.
text  The string of which you want the length. 
Returns a string which is the input string with all of the characters converted to lower case.
text  The string you want to convert. 
MID(text, start_num, num_chars)
Returns a string consisting of the specified number of characters from the specified position of the input string.
text  The string of which you want the extract. 
start_num  The starting position of characters to extract from the string. 
num_chars  The number of characters to extract from the string. 
MIDB(text, start_num, num_bytes)
Returns a string consisting of the specified number of bytes from the specified position of the input string.
text  The string of which you want the extract. 
start_num  The starting position of bytes to extract from the string. 
num_bytes  The number of bytes to extract from the string. 
NUMBERVALUE(text, [decimal_separator], [group_separator])
Returns a number from a string with optional separators.
text  The string containing the number. 
decimal_separator  The character to be used as the decimal separator. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current local decimal separator. 
group_separator  The character to be used as the group separator. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current local group separator. 
Returns a string which is the input string with the first letter of each word converted to upper case and all of the other characters converted to lower case.
text  The string you want to convert. 
REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text)
Returns a string which is the input string with a specified portion replaced.
old_text  The string you want to convert. 
start_num  The starting position of the text to be removed. 
num_chars  The number of characters to be removed. 
new_text  The text to be inserted into the string. 
REPLACEB(old_text, start_num, num_bytes, new_text)
Returns a string which is the input string with a specified portion replaced.
old_text  The string you want to convert. 
start_num  The starting position of the text to be removed. 
num_bytes  The number of bytes to be removed. 
new_text  The text to be inserted into the string. 
Returns a string which is the input string repeated a specified number of times.
text  The string you want to repeat. 
number_times  The number of times to repeat the string. 
Returns a string consisting of the specified number of characters from the end of the input string.
text  The string of which you want the end. 
num_chars  The number of characters to extract from the string. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Returns a string consisting of the specified number of bytes from the end of the input string.
text  The string of which you want the end. 
num_bytes  The number of bytes to extract from the string. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
SEARCH(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
Returns a number corresponding to the character position of one text string within another. This functions is not casesensitive and supports wildcards. Use the FIND function for casesensitive search.
find_text  The text you want to find. 
within_text  The text to be searched. 
start_num  The position at which to start searching. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
SEARCHB(find_text, within_text, [start_num])
Returns a number corresponding to the byte position of one text string within another. This functions is not casesensitive and supports wildcards. Use the FINDB function for casesensitive search.
find_text  The text you want to find. 
within_text  The text to be searched. 
start_num  The position at which to start searching. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])
Returns a string which is the input string with specified text replaced.
text  The string you want to convert. 
old_text  The string to be removed from the original text. 
new_text  The string to be inserted in the original text. 
instance_num  Specifies which occurrence of old_text is to be replaced. If this parameter is omitted then all occurrences are replaced. 
Returns a string which is the input value if it is text, otherwise an empty string.
value  The value you want if it is a string. 
Returns a string consisting of the input number formatted using the specified format string.
value  The number that you want to format. 
format_text  The format string to use. 
TEXTJOIN(delimiter, ignore_empty, text1, [text2, ...])
Returns a string consisting of the text values concatenated with the specified delimiter.
delimiter  A string or reference to one or more cells that contain the delimiter(s) to be used.  
ignore_empty  Specifies whether to ignore empty cells in the text references. The possible values are:  
 
text1, ...  The strings or references to one or more cells that you want to concatenate. 
Returns a string consisting of the input string with any extra spaces removed.
text  The string that you want to format. 
Returns a string which is the Unicode character for the specified code point.
number  The code point that you want to convert. 
Returns a number which is the Unicode code point for the first character of the specified text.
text  The text that you want to convert. 
Returns a string which is the input string with all of the characters converted to upper case.
text  The string that you want to convert. 
Returns a string consisting of the input number rounded to the specified number of decimal places and converted to currency format.
number  The amount that you want to format. 
decimals  The number of decimal places required. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2. 
Returns a number which corresponds to the value in the input string. You should not need to use this function, as values are automatically converted from text to numeric when required in formulas.
text  The string that you want to convert to a number. 
ARGUMENT([name_text], [type], [reference])
Defines an argument for a custom function.
name_text  The defined name that will be assigned to the argument. If this parameter is omitted then no name will be assigned.  
type  The acceptable data type(s) for the argument value. It can be any combination of the following (to specify more than one value, add the numbers together):  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 7.  
reference  The cell reference where the argument value will be stored. If this parameter is omitted then the argument value will not be stored. 
Ends the processing of a FOR, FOR.CELL or WHILE loop. The macro will continue with the statement after the NEXT function.
Introduces the block of statements to be processed when the corresponding IF or ELSE.IF condition is false.
Specifies another logical test that conditions a block of statements when the corresponding IF or ELSE.IF condition is false.
logical_test  An expression that results in TRUE or FALSE. 
Specifies the end of the block of statements conditioned by the corresponding IF or ELSE.IF.
FOR(counter_text, start_num, end_num, [step_num])
Performs a group of instructions a specified number of times. The end of the group is indicated by a NEXT function.
counter_text  A defined name that will be used to store the current index. 
start_num  The initial value to be assigned to the counter. 
end_num  The last value to be assigned to the counter. 
step_num  The value to be added to the counter each time around the loop. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
FOR.CELL(ref_name, [area_ref], [skip_blanks])
Performs a group of instructions for each cell in a specified area. The end of the group is indicated by a NEXT function.
ref_name  A defined name that will be used to store the current reference.  
area_ref  The range of cells to be processed.  
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection.  
skip_blanks  Whether blank cells are to be skipped. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Forces the macro to continue with the statement at the reference.
reference  The reference of the cell where macro execution is to continue. 
Terminates all running macros.
cancel_close  Whether, in an Auto_Close macro, to prevent the workbook from being closed (not currently implemented). 
Specifies a logical test that conditions the execution of a block of statements.
logical_test  An expression that results in TRUE or FALSE. 
Specifies the end of the block of statements contained in a FOR, FOR.CELL or WHILE loop.
Specifies the number of levels that will be skipped when this macro returns.
level_num  The number of levels to skip. If this parameter is omitted then all levels are skipped. 
Specifies the return type of a userdefined function.
type_num  The preferred data type(s) for the return value. It can be any combination of the following (to specify more than one value, add the numbers together):  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 7. 
Forces the macro to end, and if it is a custom function then to return the specified value.
value  For custom functions, the value to be returned. 
Assigns a defined name to the specified value.
name_text  The defined name to use. 
value  The value to be associated with the name. If this parameter is omitted then the name is deleted. 
Stores the specified values in the specified cells on the macro sheet. Do not use this function to try to update cells on a worksheet.
reference  The cells where the values are to be stored. 
values  The values to be stored. 
Specifies whether a userdefined function is to be recalculated each time the worksheet changes.
logical  Whether the function is volatile. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Forces the macro to wait until the date/time specified by the serial number.
serial_number  The date/time when the macro is to resume. If this parameter is omitted the macro does not wait. 
Specifies a logical test that conditions the execution of a block of statements multiple times. The statements between the WHILE and NEXT functions will be repeated as long as the logical test returns the value TRUE.
logical_test  An expression that results in TRUE or FALSE. 
Returns an absolute reference corresponding to an offset from another reference.
ref_text  The offset specified in R1C1 format. 
reference  The base reference. 
ACTIVATE([window_text], [pane_num])
Specifies the workbook, sheet and/or pane that is to be active.
window_text  The workbook and/or sheet name. If this parameter is omitted then the active window is not changed.  
pane_num  For a split window, specifies which pane is to be active. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted then the active pane is not changed. 
ACTIVATE.NEXT([workbook_text])
Simulates the Ctrl+Page Down or Ctrl+Tab key combination.
workbook_text  The workbook for which the next sheet is to be selected. If this parameter is omitted then the next workbook is selected. 
ACTIVATE.PREV([workbook_text])
Simulates the Ctrl+Page Up or Ctrl+Shift+Tab key combination.
workbook_text  The workbook for which the previous sheet is to be selected. If this parameter is omitted then the previous workbook is selected. 
Returns a reference which represents the current position of the cursor on the active worksheet.
ALERT(message_text, [type_num], [help_ref])
Displays a message box containing the specified text. It returns TRUE if the OK button is pressed, otherwise FALSE.
message_text  The text to be displayed in the message box.  
type_num  The type of message box to be displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2.  
help_ref  A reference to a Help topic (not currently implemented). 
ALIGNMENT([horiz_align], [wrap], [vert_align], [orientation], [add_indent])
Simulates the Format Cells dialog Alignment page.
horiz_align  The horizontal alignment to be used. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
wrap  Whether to wrap the text in the cells. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
vert_align  The vertical alignment to be used. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
orientation  The text orientation. The possible valus are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
add_indent  Not currently implemented. 
Assigns a macro to an object.
macro_ref  The reference of the macro to be assigned. If this parameter is omitted then any existing macro is removed. 
ATTACH.TEXT(attach_to_num, [series_num], [point_num])
Attaches default text to the active chart. The SELECT and FORMULA functions can be used to change the text.
attach_to_num  The item where the default text is to be attached. The possible values are:  
 
series_num  The series number of the data label (not currently implemented)  
point_num  The point number of the data label (not currently implemented) 
AXES([x_primary], [y_primary], [x_secondary], [y_secondary])
Changes the active chart axes.
x_primary  Whether to draw the Xaxis. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
y_primary  Whether to draw the Yaxis. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
x_secondary  Whether to draw the secondary Xaxis (not currently implemented).  
y_secondary  Whether to draw the secondary Yaxis (not currently implemented). 
Causes the computer to beep.
tone_num  A number from 1 to 4 indicating which type of beep is to be produced (not currently implemented  all values will produce the same tone). If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
BORDER([outline], [left], [right], [top], [bottom], [shade], [outline_color], [left_color], [right_color], [top_color], [bottom_color])
Simulates the Format Cells dialog Border page.
outline  The border type to be applied to the outline of the selected cells. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
left  The border type to be used for the left border of the selected cells. The possible values are the same as for the outline parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
right  The border type to be used for the right border of the selected cells. The possible values are the same as for the outline parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
top  The border type to be used for the top border of the selected cells. The possible values are the same as for the outline parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bottom  The border type to be used for the bottom border of the selected cells. The possible values are the same as for the outline parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
shade  Not implemented.  
outline_color  The color to be used for the outline border. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
left_color  The color to be used for the left border. The possible values are the same as for the outline_color parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
right_color  The color to be used for the right border. The possible values are the same as for the outline_color parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
top_color  The color to be used for the top border. The possible values are the same as for the outline_color parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bottom_color  The color to be used for the bottom border. The possible values are the same as for the outline_color parameter.  
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
Changes the order of the objects on the active worksheet by moving the currently selected object to the front.
Causes the current worksheet to be recalculated.
Causes all worksheets to be recalculated.
Returns information about the caller of the macro.
Macro called from:  Function returns: 
Userdefined function  reference of cell containing function call 
Userdefined function in array formula  reference of array formula range 
Attached to control or drawing object  object identifier 
Auto_Open macro  file name 
Manually (control key combination)  error value #REF! 
ON.DOUBLECLICK macro  reference of cell that was doubleclicked 
ON.ENTRY macro  reference of cell where data was entered 
ON.SHEET macro  error value #REF! 
Clears the clipboard if the clipboard data belongs to this application.
render_logical  (Not applicable to this version) 
CANCEL.KEY(enable_logical, [macro_ref])
Specifies the action taken when the Escape key is pressed in a macro.
enable_logical  Whether to interrupt the macro. The possible values are:  
 
macro_ref  The macro to be run when the Escape key is pressed (not currently implemented) 
CELL.PROTECTION([locked], [hidden])
Simulates the Format Cells dialog Protection page.
locked  Whether the cell should be locked when the sheet is protected. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
hidden  Whether the cell formula should be hidden when the sheet is protected. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
CHECKBOX.PROPERTIES([value], [link], [accel_text], [accel_text2], [3d_shading])
Changes the properties of a check box or option button control.
value  The value of the control. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the value is not changed.  
link  The cell that is updated by the control. If this parameter is omitted the link is not changed.  
accel_text  The accelerator key on a dialog sheet (not currently implemented).  
accel_text2  The second accelerator key on a dialog sheet (not currently implemented).  
3d_shading  Whether to draw the control with 3d shading. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
Simulates the Edit Clear menu options.
type_num  The type of information to clear from the current selection on the active worksheet. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 3. 
Copies the color palette from another file.
file_text  The name of the file from which to copy the palette. The file must already be open. If this parameter is an empty string then the colors are reset to the default values. 
COLUMN.WIDTH([width_num], [reference], [standard], [type_num], [standard_num])
Simulates the Format Column menu options.
width_num  The new width of the columns. The width is measured in characters. This parameter is ignored if standard is TRUE or type_num is specified. If this parameter is omitted the width of the specified columns is not changed.  
reference  The columns whose width is to be changed. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet.  
standard  Specifies whether the columns are to be set to the standard column width. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE.  
type_num  Specifies whether the columns are to be hidden, unhidden or automatically sized. This parameter is ignored if standard is TRUE. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the columns will not be hidden, unhidden or autosized.  
standard_num  Specifies the value to be used for the standard width. The width is measured in characters. If this parameter is omitted the standard width is not changed. 
COPY([from_reference], [to_reference])
Simulates the Edit Copy menu option.
from_reference  The cells that are to be copied to the clipboard. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet. 
to_reference  The cells where the copied information is to be pasted. If this parameter is omitted then the cells are not pasted. 
CREATE.OBJECT(obj_type, ref1, [x_offset1], [y_offset1], ref2, [x_offset2], [y_offset2], [text], [fill], [editable])
Simulates the Insert Drawing and Insert Control menu options.
obj_type  The type of object to be created. The possible values are:  
 
ref1  The cell containing the topleft corner of the object.  
x_offset1  The offset in points of the topleft corner of the object from the left edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
y_offset1  The offset in points of the topleft corner of the object from the top edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
ref2  The cell containing the bottomright corner of the object.  
x_offset2  The offset in points of the bottomright corner of the object from the left edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
y_offset2  The offset in points of the bottomright corner of the object from the top edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
text  The text to be assigned to the object. If this parameter is omitted then no text is assigned.  
fill  Specifies whether the object is filled or transparent (not currently implemented).  
editable  Specifies whether a combo box is editable (not currently implemented). 
CREATE.OBJECT(obj_type, ref1, [x_offset1], [y_offset1], ref2, [x_offset2], [y_offset2], array, [fill])
Simulates the Insert Drawing and Insert Control menu options.
obj_type  The type of object to be created. The possible values are:  
 
ref1  The cell containing the topleft corner of the object.  
x_offset1  The offset in points of the topleft corner of the object from the left edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
y_offset1  The offset in points of the topleft corner of the object from the top edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
ref2  The cell containing the bottomright corner of the object.  
x_offset2  The offset in points of the bottomright corner of the object from the left edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
y_offset2  The offset in points of the bottomright corner of the object from the top edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0.  
array  An array or reference with 2 columns and at least 2 rows, containing the x and y points of the polygon.  
fill  Specifies whether the object is filled or transparent (not currently implemented). 
CUT([from_reference], [to_reference])
Simulates the Edit Cut menu option.
from_reference  The cells that are to be cut to the clipboard. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet. 
to_reference  The cells where the cut information is to be pasted. If this parameter is omitted then the cells are not pasted. 
Simulates the Format Data Form menu option.
DATA.LABEL([show_option], [auto_text], [show_key])
Changes the active chart data labels.
show_option  The type of label to show. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the data labels are not changed.  
auto_text  Whether to reset the data labels (not currently implemented).  
show_key  Whether to show the legend key next to the label (not currently implemented). 
DATA.SERIES([rowcol], [type_num], [date_num], [step_value], [stop_value], [trend])
Simulates the Edit Fill Series menu option.
rowcol  Indicates whether the series is in rows or columns. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults depending on the shape of the current selection.  
type_num  The way in which the series values change. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
date_num  The way in which the date values change. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
step_value  The number used to add to or multiply by the series value. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
stop_value  The value at which to stop filling the series. If this parameter is omitted then the entire selection is filled.  
trend  Indicates whether to fill the series using trend values calculated from existing data. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
DEFINE.NAME(name_text, [refers_to], [macro_type], [shortcut_text], [hidden], [category], [local])
Simulates the Insert Name Define Add menu option.
name_text  A string containing the name to be defined.  
refers_to  The value that is to be assigned to the name. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to a reference to the current selection on the active sheet.  
macro_type  The type of macro that this name refers to (not currently implemented).  
shortcut_text  The shortcut key used to activate a command macro. If this parameter is omitted no shortcut key is assigned.  
hidden  Whether the name is to be hidden in the name definition list. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE.  
category  Identifies the category of a custom function (not currently implemented).  
local  Whether the name is to local to the active sheet. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Deletes the specified custom number format. Any cells using this format will be changed to use the General format.
format_text  A string containing the format to be deleted. 
Simulates the Insert Name Define Delete menu option.
name_text  A string containing the name to be deleted. 
Returns the values of cells in a reference. You should not need to use this function, as references are automatically converted to values where necessary when they are used in formulas.
reference  The reference to the cells whose values you want. 
Returns the path of the current directory, and optionally allows you to change it.
path_text  The path to which you want to change the current directory. If this parameter is omitted the current directory is not changed. 
DOCUMENTS([type_num], [match_text])
Returns a horizontal array containing the names of the open files.
type_num  Specifies whether to include addin workbooks in the list. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
match_text  A template name that may contain wildcard characters. If this parameter is omitted then all workbook names will be included. 
Duplicates the currently selected object.
Controls screen updating while a macro is running.
logical  Whether to update the screen while the macro is running. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is toggled. 
EDIT.COLOR(color_num, [red_value], [green_value], [blue_value])
Changes the color associated with a specific color number.
color_num  A number from 1 to 56, indicating which color is to be changed. 
red_value  A number from 0 to 255, specifying the intensity of the red component. If this parameter is omitted the red component is not changed. 
green_value  A number from 0 to 255, specifying the intensity of the green component. If this parameter is omitted the green component is not changed. 
blue_value  A number from 0 to 255, specifying the intensity of the blue component. If this parameter is omitted the blue component is not changed. 
Simulates the Edit Delete menu option.
shift_num  The way in which the cell deletion is to be processed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2. 
EDIT.SERIES([series_num], [name_ref], [x_ref], [y_ref], [z_ref], [plot_order])
Adds or changes a series on the active chart.
series_num  The number of the series to be changed. If this parameter is zero or omitted then a new series is added. 
name_ref  The series name. If this parameter is omitted the name is not changed. 
x_ref  The X categories or values reference. If this parameter is omitted the reference is not changed. 
y_ref  The Y values reference. If this parameter is omitted the reference is not changed. 
z_ref  The Z values reference (not currently implemented). 
plot_order  The order of this series on the chart (not currently implemented). 
ENABLE.OBJECT([object_id], [enable_logical])
Specifies whether an object should respond to mouse clicks.
object_id  The object to be enabled or disabled. If this parameter is omitted the currently selected object is used.  
enable_logical  Whether the object is enabled. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
ERROR(enable_logical, [macro_ref])
Specifies the action taken when an error occurs in a macro.
enable_logical  Whether to interrupt the macro. The possible values are:  
 
macro_ref  The macro to be run when an error occurs (not currently implemented) 
Returns the result of evaluating a formula.
formula_text  The formula to be evaluated. 
EXEC(program_text, [window_num])
Executes another program.
program_text  The program to be executed.  
window_num  The window state for the executed program. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2. 
Adds points to a polygon created by the CREATE.OBJECT function.
array  An array or reference with 2 columns, containing the x and y points of the polygon. 
Closes a file that was previously opened by the FOPEN function.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
FILE.CLOSE([save_logical], [route_logical])
Simulates the File Close menu option.
save_logical  Whether to save a changed file before closing it. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted then the prompt is displayed.  
route_logical  Whether to route the file after closing it (not currently implemented). 
Deletes a file.
file_text  The name of the file to be deleted. 
Returns a horizontal array containing the names of the files in a directory.
directory_text  A template name that may contain wildcard characters. If this parameter is omitted then all file names will be included. 
Simulates the Edit Fill Down menu option.
Simulates the Edit Fill Left menu option.
Simulates the Edit Fill Right menu option.
Simulates the Edit Fill Up menu option.
FILTER([field_num], [criteria1], [operation], [criteria2])
Simulates the Format Data Filter AutoFilter menu option.
field_num  The filter column number whose criteria are to be changed. The columns are number from left to right, with 1 being the first filtered column. If this parameter is omitted the filter is just turned on or off.  
criteria1  A string specifying the criteria to be used. If this parameter is omitted any filter criteria are removed from the specified column.  
operation  The combination operation when multiple criteria are used. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the second criteria is not used.  
criteria2  A string specifying the criteria to be used. If this parameter is omitted the second criteria is not used. 
FILTER.ADVANCED(operation, list_ref, [criteria_ref], [copy_ref], [unique])
Simulates the Format Data Filter Advanced filter menu option.
operation  Whether to filter in place or copy to another location. The possible values are:  
 
list_ref  The location of the list to be filtered.  
criteria_ref  The location of any filter criteria to be used. If this parameter is omitted no criteria will be applied.  
copy_ref  The destination of the copied data. This is only used when operation is 2.  
unique  Whether to select unique records only. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Simulates the Format Data Filter Show All menu option.
FONT.PROPERTIES([font], [font_style], [size], [strikethrough], [superscript], [subscript], [outline], [shadow], [underline], [color], [normal], [background], [start_char], [char_count])
Simulates the Format Cells dialog Font page or changes the font of the selected chart text.
font  The name of the font to be used.  
font_style  The style to be used. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the style is not changed.  
size  The point size to be used. If this parameter is omitted the size is not changed.  
strikethrough  Sets the strikethrough attribute. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the strikethrough attribute is not changed.  
superscript  Not currently implemented.  
subscript  Not currently implemented.  
outline  Not currently implemented.  
shadow  Not currently implemented.  
underline  The underline style to be used. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the underline style is not changed.  
color  The color to be used. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the color is not changed.  
normal  Not currently implemented.  
background  Not currently implemented.  
start_char  Not currently implemented.  
char_count  Not currently implemented. 
FOPEN(file_text, [access_num])
Opens a file for reading or writing. The return value is a file number that can be passed as a parameter to the FREAD, FREADLN, FWRITE, FWRITELN, FPOS, FSIZE and FCLOSE functions.
file_text  The name of the file to open.  
access_num  The access required to the file. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Changes the active chart legend placement.
position_num  The placement of the legend. The possible values are:  

FORMAT.MOVE([x_offset], [y_offset], [reference])
Moves the currently selected object.
x_offset  The offset in points of the topleft corner of the object from the left edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
y_offset  The offset in points of the topleft corner of the object from the top edge of the cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 0. 
reference  The cell containing the topleft corner of the object. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to A1. 
Simulates the Format Cells dialog Number page.
format_text  The number format to be used. 
FORMAT.SHAPE(vertex_num, insert, [reference], [x_offset], [y_offset])
Inserts, moves or deletes polygon points.
vertex_num  The number of the vertex to be inserted, moved or deleted.  
insert  Whether the vertex is to be inserted, moved or deleted. The possible values are:  
 
reference  The cell from which the insert or move position is measured. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the top left corner of the polygon.  
x_offset  The horizontal offset from the reference, measured in points. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero.  
y_offset  The vertical offset from the reference, measured in points. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to zero. 
FORMAT.TEXT([x_align], [y_align], [orient_num], [auto_text], [auto_size], [show_key], [show_value], [add_indent])
Formats the text in a text box or command button.
x_align  The horizontal alignment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
y_align  The vertical alignment. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
orient_num  The text orientation (not currently implemented).  
auto_text  Resets data label text (not currently implemented).  
auto_size  Resets the border around the text (not currently implemented).  
show_key  Shows legend key for data labels (not currently implemented).  
show_value  Shows values for data labels (not currently implemented).  
add_indent  Used for Far East versions only (not currently implemented). 
FORMULA(formula_text, [reference])
Enters the specified formula in the specified reference. Any references in the formula must be in R1C1 format. The FORMULA.CONVERT function can be used to convert references.
formula_text  The formula to be inserted. 
reference  The reference where formula to be inserted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the cursor position on the active worksheet. 
FORMULA.ARRAY(formula_text, [reference])
Enters the specified array formula in the specified reference. Any references in the formula must be in R1C1 format. The FORMULA.CONVERT function can be used to convert references.
formula_text  The formula to be inserted. 
reference  The reference where formula to be inserted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet. 
FORMULA.CONVERT(formula_text, from_a1, [to_a1], [to_ref_type], [rel_to_ref])
Converts the references in the specified formula from one type to another.
formula_text  The formula to be converted.  
from_a1  Whether references in the formula are in A1 or R1C1 format. The possible values are:  
 
to_a1  Whether references in the formula are converted to A1 or R1C1 format. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the format is not changed.  
to_ref_type  Whether references in the formula are converted to use absolute or relative reference type. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the reference type is not changed.  
rel_to_ref  The cell that R1C1 references are relative to. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the cell containing this function. 
FORMULA.FILL(formula_text, [reference])
Enters the specified formula in the specified range. Any references in the formula must be in R1C1 format. The FORMULA.CONVERT function can be used to convert references.
formula_text  The formula to be inserted. 
reference  The reference where formula to be inserted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet. 
FORMULA.FIND(text, in_num, at_num, by_num, [dir_num], [match_case])
Simulates the Edit Find menu option.
text  The text that you want to find.  
in_num  Where you want to look for the text. The possible values are:  
 
at_num  Whether to match the text against all or part of a cell. The possible values are:  
 
by_num  Whether to search by rows or by columns. The possible values are:  
 
dir_num  Whether to search for the next or previous match. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
match_case  Whether the search is casesensitive. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Finds the next cell based on the current criteria.
Finds the previous cell based on the current criteria.
FORMULA.GOTO([reference], [corner])
Simulates the Edit Goto menu option.
reference  The cells that are to be selected. If the sheet name is omitted then it defaults to the currently active sheet. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the sheet and cells that were selected before the last goto command.  
corner  Specifies whether the topleft corner of the selection is to be placed in the topleft corner of the window. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
FORMULA.REPLACE(find_text, replace_text, [look_at], [look_by], [active_cell], [match_case])
Simulates the Edit Find/Replace menu option.
find_text  The text that you want to find.  
replace_text  The text to replace the found text with.  
look_at  Whether to match the text against all or part of a cell. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
look_by  Whether to search by rows or by columns. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
active_cell  Whether to replace in just the current cell or in the whole sheet. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE.  
match_case  Whether the search is casesensitive. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last used. 
FPOS(file_num, [position_num])
Returns the current read/write position in a file, and optionally allows you to change it.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
position_num  The location where the next read or write will occur. 
If this parameter is omitted the current position is not changed. 
Returns a string of characters from a file.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
num_chars  The number of characters to read. 
Returns a string of characters from a file, up to the next end of line marker.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
FREEZE.PANES([logical], [col_split], [row_split])
Simulates the Format Freeze Panes menu option.
logical  Whether to freeze or unfreeze the panes. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is toggled.  
col_split  The number of columns to be frozen. If this parameter is omitted all columns left of the cursor cell are frozen.  
row_split  The number of rows to be frozen. If this parameter is omitted all rows above the cursor cell are frozen. 
Returns a size of a file.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
Simulates the Format Program Full screen menu option.
logical  Whether to switch to or from full screen mode. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Writes a string of characters to a file.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
text  The text to be written. 
Writes a string of characters to a file, followed by an end of line marker.
file_num  The file number that was returned by the FOPEN function. 
text  The text to be written. 
GALLERY.AREA(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to an area chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.BAR(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a bar chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.COLUMN(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a column chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.DOUGHNUT(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a doughnut chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.LINE(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a line chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.PIE(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a pie chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.RADAR(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a radar chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GALLERY.SCATTER(type_num, [delete_overlay])
Changes the active chart to a scatter (XY) chart.
type_num  The format to be applied to the chart. The possible values are:  
 
delete_overlay  Whether to delete any overlays (not currently implemented). 
GET.CELL(type_num, [reference])
Returns information about the specified cell.
type_num  The type of information to return. The possible values are:  
 
reference  The cell whose information is to be returned. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active cell. 
GET.DOCUMENT(type_num, [name_text])
Returns information about the specified file.
type_num  The type of information to return. The possible values are:  
 
name_text  The file whose information is to be returned. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active file. 
Returns the contents of a cell as a string. Any references in a formula will be returned in R1C1 format.
reference  The cell whose contents are to be returned. 
GET.NAME(name_text, [info_type])
Returns information about a name.
name_text  A string containing the name.  
info_type  The type of information to be returned. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
GET.NOTE([cell_ref], [start_char], [num_chars])
Returns the text of a comment.
cell_ref  The reference of the cell containing the comment. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active cell. 
start_char  The position of the first character to be returned. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
num_chars  The length of the text to be returned. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the length of the comment. 
GET.OBJECT(type_num, [object_id], [start_num], [count_num], [item_index])
Returns information about the specified object.
type_num  The type of information to return. The possible values are:  
 
object_id  The object identifier. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the currently selected object on the active worksheet.  
start_num  The text substring start position for type_num 12. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
count_num  The text substring length for type_num 12. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 255.  
item_index  This parameter is not currently used. 
GET.WINDOW(type_num, [window_text])
Returns information about the specified window.
type_num  The type of information to return. The possible values are:  
 
window_text  The window whose information is to be returned. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active window. 
GET.WORKBOOK(type_num, [name_text])
Returns information about the specified file.
type_num  The type of information to return. The possible values are:  
 
name_text  The file whose information is to be returned. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active file. 
Returns information about the workspace.
type_num  The type of information to return. The possible values are:  

GOAL.SEEK(target_cell, target_value, variable_cell)
Simulates the Format Data Goal seek menu option.
target_cell  The cell that is required to be a certain value. It must be a single cell containing a formula that returns a numeric result. 
target_value  The value that the target cell needs to reach. 
variable_cell  The cell whose value can be changed. It must be a single cell that either contains a number or is empty. 
GRIDLINES([x_major], [x_minor], [y_major], [y_minor], [z_major], [z_minor], [2D_effect])
Changes the active chart gridlines.
x_major  Whether to draw the Xaxis major gridlines. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
x_minor  Whether to draw the Xaxis minor gridlines (not currently implemented).  
y_major  Whether to draw the Yaxis major gridlines. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
y_minor  Whether to draw the Yaxis minor gridlines (not currently implemented).  
z_major  Whether to draw the Zaxis minor gridlines (not currently implemented).  
z_minor  Whether to draw the Zaxis minor gridlines (not currently implemented).  
2D_effect  Whether to draw 2D gridlines on 3D charts (not currently implemented). 
HIDE.OBJECT([object_id], [hide_logical])
Hides or shows an object.
object_id  The object to be hidden or shown. If this parameter is omitted the currently selected object is used.  
hide_logical  Whether the object is hidden. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Scrolls the worksheet horizontally by the specified number of columns.
num_columns  The number of columns to scroll. A negative number will scroll to the left. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Scrolls the worksheet horizontally by the specified number of pages.
num_windows  The number of pages to scroll. A negative number will scroll to the left. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
HSCROLL(position, [col_logical])
Scrolls the worksheet horizontally to the specified position.
position  The proportional or absolute position to scroll to.  
col_logical  Whether the position parameter represents a proportional or absolute column number. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
INPUT(message_text, [type_num], [title_text], [default], [x_pos], [y_pos], [help_ref])
Displays a message in a dialog box with an area for user input and OK and Cancel buttons. If the OK button is pressed then the text entered by the user is returned. If the Cancel button is pressed then this function returns the value FALSE.
message_text  The message that you want displayed in the dialog box.  
type_num  The acceptable data type(s) for the data that you want returned. It can be any combination of the following (to specify more than one value, add the numbers together):  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2.  
title_text  The title to be used for the dialog box. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to "Input".  
default  The text that you want to be initially displayed in the input area of the dialog box. If this parameter is omitted the input area will be blank.  
x_pos  The initial x position on the screen where the dialog box will be displayed. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the center of the screen. (Not currently implemented)  
y_pos  The initial y position on the screen where the dialog box will be displayed. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the center of the screen. (Not currently implemented)  
help_ref  The name of help topic that is to be displayed if the user presses the Help button in the dialog box. If this parameter is omitted then no Help button is displayed. (Not currently implemented) 
Simulates the Insert Cells menu option.
shift_num  The way in which the cell insertion is to be processed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2. 
INSERT.TITLE([chart], [y_primary], [x_primary], [y_secondary], [x_secondary])
Attaches default text to the active chart. The SELECT and FORMULA functions can be used to change the text.
chart  Whether to add a default chart title. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the chart title is not changed.  
y_primary  Whether to add a default primary yaxis title. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the primary yaxis title is not changed.  
x_primary  Whether to add a default primary xaxis title. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the primary xaxis title is not changed.  
y_secondary  Whether to add a default secondary yaxis title (not currently implemented).  
x_secondary  Whether to add a default secondary xaxis title (not currently implemented). 
LABEL.PROPERTIES([accel_text], [accel_text2], [3d_shading])
Changes the properties of a label or group box control.
accel_text  The accelerator key on a dialog sheet (not currently implemented).  
accel_text2  The second accelerator key on a dialog sheet (not currently implemented).  
3d_shading  Whether to draw the control with 3d shading. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
Changes the active chart legend visibility.
logical  Whether to show the legend. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Simulates the Insert Name Paste menu option.
LISTBOX.PROPERTIES([range], [link], [drop_size], [multi_select], [3d_shading])
Changes the properties of a list box or combo box control.
range  The input range from which to fill the list. If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
link  The cell that is updated by the control. If this parameter is omitted the link is not changed.  
drop_size  The number of lines in the dropdown list of a combo box. If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
multi_select  Whether to allow more than one list selection (not currently implemented).  
3d_shading  Whether to draw the control with 3d shading. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
Displays a message on the status bar.
logical  Whether to display or hide messages. The possible values are:  
 
text  The message to be displayed. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to an empty string. 
NAMES([document_text], [type_num], [match_text])
Returns a horizontal array containing defined names.
document_text  The name of the workbook containing the names. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active workbook.  
type_num  The type of name to retrieve. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
match_text  A template name that may contain wildcard characters. If this parameter is omitted all names will match. 
NEW([type_num], [xy_series], [add_logical])
Simulates the File New menu option.
type_num  The type of workbook to create. The possible values are:  
 
xy_series  How to interpret selected data for a new chart (not currently implemented).  
add_logical  Whether to add the specified sheet to the current workbook (not currently implemented). 
NOTE([add_text], [cell_ref], [start_char], [num_chars])
Simulates the Insert Comment menu option.
add_text  The text that is to be added. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to an empty string. 
cell_ref  The cell where the comment is to be inserted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the active cell. 
start_char  The start position in an existing comment where the new text is to be inserted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
num_chars  The length of text in an existing comment that is to be replaced. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the length of the existing text. 
OBJECT.PROPERTIES([placement_type], [print_object])
Changes the properties of an object.
placement_type  How the object is attached to the cells. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
print_object  Whether the object can be printed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
ON.DOUBLECLICK([sheet_text], [macro_text])
Specifies a macro to be run when a cell is doubleclicked.
sheet_text  The name of the sheet for which the macro is to be run. If this parameter is omitted then the macro will be run for all sheets. 
macro_text  A string containing a defined name or R1C1 reference indicating the macro that is to be run. If this parameter is omitted then no macro will be run. 
ON.ENTRY([sheet_text], [macro_text])
Specifies a macro to be run when data is entered.
sheet_text  The name of the sheet for which the macro is to be run. If this parameter is omitted then the macro will be run for all sheets. 
macro_text  A string containing a defined name or R1C1 reference indicating the macro that is to be run. If this parameter is omitted then no macro will be run. 
ON.SHEET([sheet_text], [macro_text], [activate_logical])
Specifies a macro to be run when a sheet is activated or deactivated.
sheet_text  The name of the sheet for which the macro is to be run. If this parameter is omitted then the macro will be run for all sheets.  
macro_text  A string containing a defined name or R1C1 reference indicating the macro that is to be run. If this parameter is omitted then no macro will be run.  
activate_logical  Specifies whether the macro is to be run when the sheet is activated or deactivated. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
OPEN(file_text, [update_links], [read_only], [format], [prot_pwd], [write_res_pwd], [ignore_rorec], [file_origin], [custom_delimit], [add_logical], [editable], [file_access], [notify_logical], [converter])
Simulates the File Open menu option.
file_text  The name of the file to be opened.  
update_links  Whether to update external references. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted and external references exist then a prompt will be displayed.  
read_only  Whether to open the file as readonly (not currently implemented).  
format  The character used as a delimiter for text files. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the text file delimiter will be determined from the file extension.  
prot_pwd  The password required to unprotect a file (not currently implemented).  
write_res_pwd  The password required to open a readonly file for writing (not currently implemented).  
ignore_rorec  Whether to suppress the display of the readonly recommended message (not currently implemented).  
file_origin  The operating system where the file originated (not currently implemented).  
custom_delimit  The character used as a custom delimiter for text files.  
add_logical  Whether to add the specified file to the current workbook (not currently implemented).  
editable  Whether a template file should be opened in readwrite mode (not currently implemented).  
file_access  Whether to change the access of a currently open file (not currently implemented).  
notify_logical  Whether to send a message when a shared workbook becomes available (not currently implemented).  
converter  Overrides the default file type (not currently implemented). 
OPEN.DIALOG([file_filter], [button_text], [title], [filter_index])
Returns a file name from the File Open dialog box, or FALSE if Cancel is selected.
file_filter  One or more file filters, separated by commas. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to "All Files (*.*), *.*". 
button_text  Replacement text for the Open button (not currently implemented). 
title  Replacement text for the dialog box title. If this parameter is omitted the title is not changed. 
filter_index  The index of the initial file filter. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
OPTIONS.VIEW([formula], [status], [notes], [show_info], [object_num], [page_breaks], [formulas], [gridlines], [color_num], [headings], [outline], [zeros], [hor_scroll], [vert_scroll], [sheet_tabs])
Changes the program, file or sheet view options.
formula  Specifies whether the formula bar is displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
status  Specifies whether the status bar is displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
notes  Specifies whether comments and indicators are displayed (not currently implemented).  
show_info  Specifies whether the info window is displayed (not currently implemented).  
object_num  Specifies how objects are displayed (not currently implemented).  
page_breaks  Specifies whether page breaks are displayed (not currently implemented).  
formulas  Specifies whether to display formulas or values in cells. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
gridlines  Specifies whether gridlines are displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
color_num  Specifies the color to be used for drawing gridlines (not currently implemented).  
headings  Specifies whether row and column headings are displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
outline  Specifies whether outline symbols are displayed (not currently implemented).  
zeros  Specifies whether zero values are displayed (not currently implemented).  
hor_scroll  Specifies whether the horizontal scroll bar is displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
vert_scroll  Specifies whether the vertical scroll bar is displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
sheet_tabs  Specifies whether the sheet tabs are displayed. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
Simulates the Edit Paste menu option.
to_reference  The cells where the copied information is to be pasted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet. 
PASTE.SPECIAL([paste_num], [operation_num], [skip_blanks], [transpose])
Simulates the Edit Paste Special menu option.
paste_num  The type of information to be pasted. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
operation_num  The way in which the data being pasted is merged with existing data. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
skip_blanks  Whether to ignore blank cells in the data being pasted. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE.  
transpose  Whether to transpose the data being pasted. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
PATTERNS([apattern], [afore], [aback])
Simulates the Format Cells dialog Patterns page.
apattern  The number of the pattern to be applied. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
afore  The number of the foreground color to be applied. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
aback  The number of the background color to be applied. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
PATTERNS([lauto], [lstyle], [lcolor], [lwt], [hwidth], [hlength], [htype])
Changes the attributes of the selected line.
lauto  The line setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
lstyle  The line style (not currently implemented).  
lcolor  The line color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
lwt  The line weight (not currently implemented).  
hwidth  The arrowhead width (not currently implemented).  
hlength  The arrowhead length (not currently implemented).  
htype  The arrowhead type. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
PATTERNS([bauto], [bstyle], [bcolor], [bwt], [shadow], [aauto], [apattern], [afore], [aback], [rounded], [newui])
Changes the attributes of the selected text box, rectangle or oval.
bauto  The border setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bstyle  The border style (not currently implemented).  
bcolor  The border color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bwt  The border weight (not currently implemented).  
shadow  Whether to apply a shadow to the object (not currently implemented).  
aauto  The area setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
apattern  The area pattern (not currently implemented).  
afore  The area foreground color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
aback  The area background color (not currently implemented).  
rounded  Whether to draw the object with rounded corners (not currently implemented).  
newui  Whether to use the new or old user interface color scheme (not currently implemented). 
PATTERNS([bauto], [bstyle], [bcolor], [bwt], [shadow], [aauto], [apattern], [afore], [aback], [invert], [apply], [new_fill])
Changes the attributes of the selected chart plot areas, bars, columns, pie slices or text labels.
bauto  The border setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bstyle  The border style. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bcolor  The border color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
bwt  The border weight (not currently implemented).  
shadow  Whether to apply a shadow to the object (not currently implemented).  
aauto  The area setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
apattern  The area pattern (not currently implemented).  
afore  The area foreground color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
aback  The area background color (not currently implemented).  
invert  Whether to invert the pattern for a negative value (not currently implemented).  
apply  Whether to apply changes to just this item or all similar items (not currently implemented).  
new_fill  Whether to use the new or old user interface color scheme (not currently implemented). 
PATTERNS([lauto], [lstyle], [lcolor], [lwt], [mauto], [mstyle], [mfore], [mback], [apply], [smooth])
Changes the attributes of the selected chart series line.
lauto  The line setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
lstyle  The line style. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
lcolor  The line color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
lwt  The line weight (not currently implemented).  
mauto  The marker setting. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
mstyle  The marker style. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
mfore  The marker foreground color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
mback  The marker background color. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
apply  Whether to apply changes to just this item or all similar items (not currently implemented).  
smooth  Whether to smooth picture markers (not currently implemented). 
PROTECT.DOCUMENT([contents], [windows], [password], [objects], [scenarios])
Simulates the Format Sheet Protect menu option.
contents  Whether to protect the locked cell contents. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE.  
windows  Whether to protect windows from being moved or sized (not currently implemented). The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE.  
password  An optional casesensitive password to protect or unprotect the document.  
objects  Whether to protect the locked objects (not currently implemented). The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE.  
scenarios  Whether to protect the scenarios (not currently implemented). The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
Simulates the File Exit menu option.
Returns a string containing the specified reference.
reference  The reference that is to be converted to text.  
a1  Specifies the style of the reference. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Returns a string containing an R1C1 reference that represents the offset of the first reference from the second.
reference  The target reference. 
rel_to_ref  The base reference. 
ROW.HEIGHT([height_num], [reference], [standard_height], [type_num])
Simulates the Format Row menu options.
height_num  The new height of the rows. The height is measured in points. This parameter is ignored if standard_height is TRUE or type_num is specified. If this parameter is omitted the height of the specified rows is not changed.  
reference  The rows whose height is to be changed. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current selection on the active worksheet.  
standard_height  Specifies whether the rows are to be set to the standard row height. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE.  
type_num  Specifies whether the rows are to be hidden, unhidden or automatically sized. This parameter is ignored if standard_height is TRUE. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the rows will not be hidden, unhidden or autosized. 
Simulates the File Save menu option.
SAVE.AS([document_text], [type_num], [prot_pwd], [backup], [write_res_pwd], [read_only_rec])
Simulates the File Save As menu option.
document_text  The name for the saved file. If this parameter is omitted the current name will be used.  
type_num  The type of file to save. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current file type.  
prot_pwd  The password required to unprotect a file (not currently implemented).  
backup  Whether to make a backup of the file (not currently implemented).  
write_res_pwd  The password required to open a readonly file for writing (not currently implemented).  
read_only_rec  Whether to save the file as readonly recommended (not currently implemented). 
SAVE.AS?([document_text], [type_num], [prot_pwd], [backup], [write_res_pwd], [read_only_rec])
Simulates the File Save As menu option, displaying the dialog box.
document_text  The name for the saved file. If this parameter is omitted the current name will be used.  
type_num  The type of file to save. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the current file type.  
prot_pwd  The password required to unprotect a file (not currently implemented).  
backup  Whether to make a backup of the file (not currently implemented).  
write_res_pwd  The password required to open a readonly file for writing (not currently implemented).  
read_only_rec  Whether to save the file as readonly recommended (not currently implemented). 
Saves a copy of the current file with a different name.
document_text  The name for the saved file. If this parameter is omitted then the file is not saved. 
SAVE.DIALOG([init_filename], [title], [button_text], [file_filter], [filter_index])
Returns a file name from the File Save As dialog box, or FALSE if Cancel is selected.
init_filename  The suggested file name. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the name of the active file. 
title  Replacement text for the dialog box title. If this parameter is omitted the title is not changed. 
button_text  Replacement text for the Save button (not currently implemented). 
file_filter  One or more file filters, separated by commas. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to "All Files (*.*), *.*". 
filter_index  The index of the initial file filter. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
SCALE([min_num], [max_num], [major], [minor], [cross], [logarithmic], [reverse], [max])
Changes the attributes of the selected chart value axis scale.
min_num  The minimum value. If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
max_num  The maximum value. If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
major  The major step value. If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
minor  The minor step value (not currently implemented).  
cross  The value at which the opposite axis crosses this axis (not currently implemented).  
logarithmic  Whether this scale is linear or logarithmic. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed.  
reverse  Whether the scale values are show in reverse order (not currently implemented).  
max  Whether the opposite axis crosses this axis at the maximum value (not currently implemented). 
SCROLLBAR.PROPERTIES([value], [min], [max], [inc], [page], [link], [3d_shading])
Changes the properties of a scroll bar or spin control.
value  The current value of the control. If this parameter is omitted the value is not changed.  
min  The minimum value of the control. If this parameter is omitted the value is not changed.  
max  The maximum value of the control. If this parameter is omitted the value is not changed.  
inc  The change to the current value when the arrow button is clicked. If this parameter is omitted the value is not changed.  
page  The change to the current value when the area either side of the scroll bar thumb is clicked. If this parameter is omitted the value is not changed.  
link  The cell that is updated by the control. If this parameter is omitted the link is not changed.  
3d_shading  Whether to draw the control with 3d shading. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
SELECT([selection], [active_cell])
Sets the selection and cursor cell on the active worksheet.
selection  The cells that are to be the selection. If this parameter is omitted the current selection is not changed. 
active_cell  The cell that is to be the cursor cell. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the top left cell in the selection. 
SELECT([object_id], [replace])
Selects an object on the active worksheet.
object_id  The object to be selected. If this parameter is omitted the current selection is not changed. 
replace  Whether to replace or add to the existing object selection (not currently implemented). 
SELECT([item_text], [single_point])
Selects an object on the active chart.
item_text  The object to be selected. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the current selection is not changed.  
single_point  Whether to select a single point or the entire series (not currently implemented). 
Simulates the Ctrl+arrow key combination.
direction_num  The direction in which to move the cursor. The possible values are:  

Simulates the Ctrl+End key combination.
Returns a reference which represents the current selection on the active worksheet.
Changes the order of the objects on the active worksheet by moving the currently selected object to the back.
Changes the current value of a control.
value  The new value for the control. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the setting is not changed. 
Scrolls the active cell into view.
SORT([orientation], [key1], [order1], [key2], [order2], [key3], [order3], [header], [custom], [case])
Simulates the Format Data Sort menu option.
orientation  Specifies whether to sort the rows or columns. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
key1  Specifies a reference to the first column or row to sort on. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the first column or row in the selection.  
order1  Specifies whether to sort the data in ascending or descending order. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
key2  Specifies a reference to the second column or row to sort on. If this parameter is omitted then the second key is not used.  
order2  Specifies whether to sort the data in ascending or descending order. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
key3  Specifies a reference to the third column or row to sort on. If this parameter is omitted then the third key is not used.  
order3  Specifies whether to sort the data in ascending or descending order. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
header  Specifies whether the selected cells include a header row or column. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 2.  
custom  Specifies whether to use a custom list for the first sort key. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
case  Specifies whether the sort should be casesensitive. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
STANDARD.WIDTH([standard_num])
Simulates the Format Column Standard width menu option.
standard_num  The new standard width. If this parameter is omitted then the standard width is not changed. 
TEXT.BOX(add_text, [object_id], [start_num], [num_chars])
Changes the text of an object.
add_text  The text that is to be added. 
object_id  The object identifier. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the currently selected object on the active worksheet. 
start_num  The start position in the existing text where the new text is to be inserted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
num_chars  The length of existing text that is to be replaced. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the length of the existing text. 
TEXT.TO.COLUMNS([destination_ref], [data_type], [text_delim], [consecutive_delim], [tab], [semicolon], [comma], [space], [other], [other_char], [field_info])
Simulates the Format Data Text to Columns menu option.
destination_ref  Specifies an alternative destination for the parsed data (not currently implemented).  
data_type  Specifies how the data is to be split. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1.  
text_delim  For delimited data, specifies the text item delimiter. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
consecutive_delim  For delimited data, specifies whether to treat consecutive delimiters as one. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
tab  For delimited data, specifies whether to treat the tab character as a delimiter. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
semicolon  For delimited data, specifies whether to treat the semicolon character as a delimiter. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
comma  For delimited data, specifies whether to treat the comma character as a delimiter. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
space  For delimited data, specifies whether to treat the space character as a delimiter. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
other  For delimited data, specifies whether to treat the userspecified character as a delimiter. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
other_char  For delimited data, specifies the userspecified character to be treated as a delimiter. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the value last specified from the menu option.  
field_info  For delimited data, an array specifying {column number, data format}, repeated as necessary. For fixed width data, an array specifying {start position, data format}, repeated as necessary. For the data format, the possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted the data format defaults to General. 
Returns a reference corresponding to the specified text.
text  The string containing the reference.  
a1  Specifies the style of the reference. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Simulates the Edit Undo menu option.
Scrolls the worksheet vertically by the specified number of rows.
num_rows  The number of rows to scroll. A negative number will scroll towards the top. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
Scrolls the worksheet vertically by the specified number of pages.
num_windows  The number of pages to scroll. A negative number will scroll towards the top. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to 1. 
VSCROLL(position, [row_logical])
Scrolls the worksheet vertically to the specified position.
position  The proportional or absolute position to scroll to.  
row_logical  Whether the position parameter represents a proportional or absolute row number. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Specifies the sheet that is to be the active worksheet.
sheet_name  The sheet that is to be the active worksheet. 
Simulates the Edit Delete Sheet menu option.
sheet_name  The sheet that is to be deleted. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the currently active sheet. 
WORKBOOK.HIDE([sheet_text], [very_hidden])
Simulates the Format Sheet Hide menu option.
sheet_text  The name of the sheet to hide. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the currently active sheet.  
very_hidden  Whether to show the name of the hidden sheet in the Unhide dialog box. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to FALSE. 
Simulates the Insert Worksheet, Chart and Macro sheet menu options.
type_num  The type of sheet that is to be added. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the type of the currently active sheet. 
WORKBOOK.NAME(old_sheet_name, new_sheet_name)
Simulates the Format Sheet Rename menu option.
old_sheet_name  The sheet that is to be renamed. 
new_sheet_name  The new name for the sheet. 
Simulates the Ctrl+Page Down key combination.
Simulates the Ctrl+Page Up key combination.
Simulates the Format Sheet Unhide menu option.
sheet_text  The name of the sheet to unhide. If this parameter is omitted it defaults to the first hidden sheet. 
Simulates the Format Sheet Zoom menu option.
magnification  The magnification option. The possible values are:  
 
If this parameter is omitted it defaults to TRUE. 
CALL(module_text, procedure, type_text, [argument1, ...])
Returns a value from an external function.
module_text  The name of the DLL that contains the function.  
procedure  The name of the function.  
type_text  A string specifying the result type and the argument types. Each type is represented by a single character. The possible character values are:  
 
argument1, ...  The arguments to pass to the function. 
Returns text URLencoded.
text  The text to be URLencoded. 
Returns data extracted from xml using the specified xpath.
xml  The xml string containing the data. 
xpath  The xpath expression defining the data required. 
Returns data from a web service.
url  The URL of the web service. 
To add a chart, use the Insert Chart menu option to add a new chart sheet. Then use the Format Chart menu option to display the dialog box that contains the following formatting options:
TypeThe program currently supports the following chart types:
Column  Displays vertical columns whose heights correspond to the data values. 
Bar  Displays horizontal bars whose lengths correspond to the data values. 
Line  Displays a line through points whose vertical positions correspond to the data values, the horizontal positions are evenly spaced. 
Pie  Displays a circle divided up into regions whose relative sizes correspond to the data values. 
Doughnut  Like the Pie chart but displays one or more series. 
Scatter  Displays a line through points whose x and y coordinates are given by the data values. 
Area  Like the line chart, but the area below the line is filled in, and the series values are stacked. 
Radar  Displays a line through points whose distances from a central point correspond to the data values. 
This allows you to specify the data values to be used for each series. To add a new series, press the 'New...' button. To change an existing series, select it in the list box and then press the 'Edit...' button. To remove an existing series, select it in the list box and press the 'Delete' button.
Note that for Pie charts, only the first series will be displayed.
When entering or changing a series, you are prompted for the following information:
Data  Name  An optional name that is used to identify the series in the list box. It defaults to 'Series1', etc. 
Y values  A reference to the cells that contain the data to be charted. You can specify more than one reference, separating them with commas, but they must all be from the same sheet. Alternatively you can specify this as an array of values.  
X labels  For Column, Bar, Pie, Line and Area charts, you can specify a reference or array of values that will be used to label the categories. As there is only one set of labels, this must be the same for all the series on one chart. For Scatter charts, this item is labelled 'X values' and you must enter a reference or array of values to be used as the x coordinates of the line.  
Patterns  Line type  Allows you to choose a solid, dashed or dotted line. 
Line color  Allows you to specify the color of the line.  
Marker type  For Line, Scatter and Radar charts, allows you to choose a marker for the data points.  
Marker colors  For Line, Scatter and Radar charts, allows you to choose the foreground and background colors for the marker.  
Area color  For Column, Bar, Pie, Doughnut and Area charts, allows you to specify the colour that will be used to fill the interior.  
Labels  Label type  Allows you to display the x or y values next to the data points, and for Pie and Doughnut charts the percentages. 
This allows you to specify the titles that will be used to label the chart itself and the x and y axes. Note that axis titles do not apply to Pie charts.
This allows you to specify the formatting of the x and y axes. The actual options that are available will depend on the currently selected chart type.
Axis  Specifies whether the axis line will be drawn. 
Gridlines  Specifies whether the guidelines will be drawn. 
Ticks  Specifies whether the axis tick marks will be drawn. 
Values  Specifies whether the axis values will be displayed. 
Logarithmic  Specifies whether a linear or logarithmic scale is required. 
Minimum  Specifies the minimum value to be used on the scale. 
Maximum  Specifies the maximum value to be used on the scale. 
Step  Specifies the interval between the values on the scale. 
This allows you to specify whether and where to display the names that identify each series with its line and/or area color. For Pie charts, the information displayed will be the category names (from the 'X labels' entry in the series formatting dialog box), for other chart types it will be the Series names from the chart series list box.
Macros can be used to create userdefined functions to use in your spreadsheets, and userdefined commands to automate tasks.
Macros are useful for userdefined functions in 2 situations:
1. You may have a complex function, which is composed of many nested functions, which is used in many places on your worksheet. A userdefined function would save you a lot of typing by specifying the actual calculation in only one place.
2. You may need to use an iterative or recursive calculation that has to be performed a certain number of times before a result is found.
These are the steps for entering a userdefined function:
1. Use the Insert Macro sheet menu option to insert a macro sheet in the workbook. Macros must be stored on macro sheets. You can have many macros on a single macro sheet.
2. Enter the macro function statements. A userdefined function macro will usually begin with one or more ARGUMENT functions to receive the parameters, and it must end with a RETURN function.
This example calculates the approximate integral of the function sin(x) between a lower and upper limit using the trapezium rule and dividing the area into 100 slices:
A 
B 
C 
D 

1  Integral:  =ARGUMENT(,1,D1)  lower:  
2  =ARGUMENT(,1,D2)  upper:  
3  =SET.VALUE(D3,0)  sum:  
4  =SET.VALUE(D4,SIN(D1))  y0:  
5  =SET.VALUE(D5,SIN(D2))  yn:  
6  =SET.VALUE(D6,1)  i:  
7  =WHILE(D6<D7)  steps:  100  
8  =SET.VALUE(D8,D1+(D2D1)*D6/D7)  x:  
9  =SET.VALUE(D3,D3+SIN(D8))  
10  =SET.VALUE(D6,D6+1)  
11  =NEXT()  
12  =RETURN((D2D1)/D7/2*(D4+D5+2*D3)) 
3. Use the Insert Name Define menu option to add a name for the macro. For the example above, you could define a name called 'integral', which refers to cell: Macro1!$B$1. Note that the macro name in cell A1 is for our reference only, it is not used by the program.
4. Then on your worksheet (or even in another macro), use the defined name like an ordinary worksheet function name.
For the example above, if you enter 0 in cell A1 on your worksheet, and =PI() in cell A2 on your worksheet, and =integral(A1,A2) in cell A3, then cell A3 will display 1.9998355 (higher accuracy could be obtained with a larger number of steps but the calculation would take correspondingly longer).
Here is an example that uses recursion. Because macro sheets do not directly support recursion, I have implemented a simple stack to store the values at each level by concatenating them together in a string.
This function displays a number as text:
A 
B 
C 
D 
E 

1  Say number:  =ARGUMENT(,1,D1)  input:  
2  =SET.VALUE(D2,"")  output:  
3  =SET.VALUE(D1,INT(D1))  temp:  
4  =IF(D1<=0,RETURN(D2))  
5  =IF(D1>=1000000)  
6  stack input  =SET.VALUE(E1,D1&""&E1)  
7  stack output  =SET.VALUE(E2,D2&""&E2)  
8  get millions  =SET.VALUE(D3,saynumber(D1/1000000))  
9  unstack output  =SET.VALUE(D2,LEFT(E2,FIND("",E2)1))  
10  =SET.VALUE(E2,RIGHT(E2,LEN(E2)FIND("",E2)))  
11  unstack input  =SET.VALUE(D1,LEFT(E1,FIND("",E1)1))  
12  =SET.VALUE(E1,RIGHT(E1,LEN(E1)FIND("",E1)))  
13  update output  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&D3&" million")  
14  update input  =SET.VALUE(D1,MOD(D1,1000000))  
15  check if finished  =IF(D1=0,RETURN(D2))  
16  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&IF(D1<100," and "," "))  
17  =END.IF()  
18  =IF(D1>=1000)  
19  stack input  =SET.VALUE(E1,D1&""&E1)  
20  stack output  =SET.VALUE(E2,D2&""&E2)  
21  get thousands  =SET.VALUE(D3,saynumber(D1/1000))  
22  unstack output  =SET.VALUE(D2,LEFT(E2,FIND("",E2)1))  
23  =SET.VALUE(E2,RIGHT(E2,LEN(E2)FIND("",E2)))  
24  unstack input  =SET.VALUE(D1,LEFT(E1,FIND("",E1)1))  
25  =SET.VALUE(E1,RIGHT(E1,LEN(E1)FIND("",E1)))  
26  update output  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&D3&" thousand")  
27  update input  =SET.VALUE(D1,MOD(D1,1000))  
28  check if finished  =IF(D1=0,RETURN(D2))  
29  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&IF(D1<100," and "," "))  
30  =END.IF()  
31  =IF(D1>=100)  
32  stack input  =SET.VALUE(E1,D1&""&E1)  
33  stack output  =SET.VALUE(E2,D2&""&E2)  
34  get hundreds  =SET.VALUE(D3,saynumber(D1/100))  
35  unstack output  =SET.VALUE(D2,LEFT(E2,FIND("",E2)1))  
36  =SET.VALUE(E2,RIGHT(E2,LEN(E2)FIND("",E2)))  
37  unstack input  =SET.VALUE(D1,LEFT(E1,FIND("",E1)1))  
38  =SET.VALUE(E1,RIGHT(E1,LEN(E1)FIND("",E1)))  
39  update output  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&D3&" hundred")  
40  update input  =SET.VALUE(D1,MOD(D1,100))  
41  check if finished  =IF(D1=0,RETURN(D2))  
42  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&" and ")  
43  =END.IF()  
44  =IF(D1>=20)  
45  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&CHOOSE(INT(D1/10)1, "twenty", "thirty", "forty", "fifty", "sixty", "seventy", "eighty", "ninety"))  
46  =SET.VALUE(D1,MOD(D1,10))  
47  =IF(D1=0,RETURN(D2))  
48  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&" ")  
49  =END.IF()  
50  =SET.VALUE(D2,D2&CHOOSE(D1, "one", "two", "three", "four", "five", "six", "seven", "eight", "nine", "ten", "eleven", "twelve", "thirteen", "fourteen", "fifteen", "sixteen", "seventeen", "eighteen", "nineteen"))  
51  =RETURN(D2) 
If we create a name ('SayNumber') for this function (Macro1!$B$1), we can enter 1234567890 in cell A1 on our worksheet, and =saynumber(A1) in cell A2 on our worksheet, and cell A2 will display:
one thousand two hundred and thirty four million five hundred and sixty seven thousand eight hundred and ninety
Here is a command macro example.
This macro moves to the beginning of row 5 on the current sheet, inserts a new row, puts the current date into column A, formats it, and moves to column B ready for entry.
A 
B 

1  NewEntry:  =SELECT(!$A$5) 
2  =INSERT(3)  
3  =FORMULA(TODAY())  
4  =FORMAT.NUMBER("dd/mm/yy")  
5  =SELECT(!$B$5)  
6  =RETURN() 
We create a name for this macro, e.g. "NewEntry", pointing to the reference "Macro1!$B$1", and assign control key "t" to it.
Then on our main sheet, we can press Ctrl+t and the macro will be run. Note that the macro name in cell A1 is for our reference only, it is not used by the program.
Note that the following control keys are reserved for program operation, and should not be assigned to your command macros:
1  Format Cells  
c  Edit Copy  
d  Edit Fill Down  
e  enter edit mode  
f  Edit Find  
g  Edit Goto  
h  Edit Replace  
k  Insert Hyperlink  
n  File New  
o  File Open  
r  Edit Fill Right  
s  File Save  
v  Edit Paste  
x  Edit Cut  
z  Edit Undo  
;  insert date  
:  insert time 
You can add controls and drawing objects to a worksheet by using the Insert Control and Insert Drawing menu options. After selecting the menu option, drag the pointer across the worksheet to define the area that the control will occupy. A dialog box will then be displayed that allows you to specify the attributes of the object.
To edit a control or drawing object, press the Ctrl key (on the keyboard) and then click on the object. This will select the object. Then you can use the Edit Delete menu option or the Format Control or Format Drawing menu option, or you can drag the control to a different position or you can change the shape or size by dragging the border of the object. To deselect a selected object, press the Ctrl key and click on the object again, or select a different object, or click elsewhere on the worksheet. You can also use Tab or Shift+Tab to select the next or previous object.
The following control object types are supported:
Label  A text label. 
Group box  A rectangle with an optional heading. Useful for grouping separate sets of option buttons together. 
Command button  A button that can be pressed. Useful for activating a macro. 
Check box  A box that can be ticked or unticked. It can return a value of TRUE or FALSE to a linked cell to indicate its state. 
Option button  Usually one of a group of buttons that selects one of several items. Only one of the buttons in a group can be pressed at any one time. Use a group box object to define a button group. The group of buttons can return a value to a linked cell indicating the number of the button in the group that is currently pressed. 
List box  Displays a list of items from a range in the spreadsheet. It can return the number of the selected item to a linked cell. 
Combo box  Displays one of a list of items from a range in the spreadsheet. It can return the number of the selected item to a linked cell. 
Scroll bar  A horizontal or vertical scroll bar. The orientation is determined by the shape of the rectangle when the control is first inserted. It can return the value of the current position to a linked cell. 
Spin control  A vertical spin control. It can return the current value to a linked cell. 
The following drawing object types are supported:
Line  A line or arrow. 
Rectangle  A rectangle that can be filled. 
Oval  An oval that can be filled. 
Text box  A rectangle that can contain text. 
All of the objects can have a macro attached that will be run when the object is clicked on.